Violation of the hormonal background in women is a very serious problem. After all, the mood, well-being and the state of health in general directly depend on how the endocrine system works. Hormonal failure is also negatively reflected on the reproductive functions of the female body. In addition, it can trigger the emergence of a number of diseases - extragenital and genital. If such a problem has appeared, you need to start fighting with it as soon as possible.
Hormonal failure can occur for various reasons. There are a lot of them, because in the human body there are several endocrine glands that are involved in the production of hormones. To provoke problems in their work can such factors as:
- excessive alcohol craze
- long stay in stressful situations, unbalanced diet,
- hard physical labor
- bad ecology,
- certain diseases - hypothyroidism, obesity, diabetes.
Hormone failure may occur in the case of an artificial termination of pregnancy, after childbirth or menopause. To provoke this problem are capable of inflammation of the genital organs. Well, do not forget about such factors as heredity. By the way, in future moms hormonal changes also change, and quite seriously. After all, the body during this period begins to rebuild, adapting to new conditions for itself.
The presence of a problem will indicate certain symptoms of hormonal imbalance. However, it should be noted here that they are not pronounced. In addition, the deficit, or, conversely, too many hormones of various kinds manifest themselves in different ways. Doctors need to be consulted if, for no reason, their body weight starts to change - their weight increases or, conversely, decreases.
In addition, alarms in this case will be constant drowsiness, fatigue, sudden mood swings, excessive hairiness of certain parts of the face or body, hand tremor, rapid heartbeat, increased skin and hair greasiness, painful or irregular periods. Hormones in women can significantly deviate from the norm in case of polycystic ovary - the corresponding symptoms will also indicate this. Among them it is necessary to highlight the decrease in the volume of blood released during menstruation, pulling pain in the abdomen, the inability to become pregnant for a long time.
How can you normalize the hormonal background of women
As we see, there are a lot of reasons that provoke such a problem, and we have listed far from all. Accordingly, in this case it is necessary to consult a doctor. After all, treatment will not be effective if the cause that provoked the failure has not been established. Only after it is installed, it will be possible to adjust the hormones. Otherwise, the risk of serious complications will be very high.
Also, do not forget that everything in the body is interconnected, and, for example, a high level of adrenaline in the blood caused by a malfunction of the adrenal glands, leads to problems with the genitals. Estrogen (hormone of sexuality) directly affects the ability to engage in mental and physical activity. Also depends on him the mood of the woman and her appearance. For the normal conception of the child and the subsequent bearing of the baby need a sufficient amount of progesterone. Deficiency of this hormone can cause serious problems, adversely affecting the reproductive function.
So, let's see how to normalize the hormones in the weaker sex. First of all, you will need to undergo a comprehensive examination, which includes a gynecological examination, history taking, ultrasound of the adrenal glands, liver, pelvic organs, thyroid gland. You also need to pass a blood test for sugar and the level of hormones TSH, T32 and T4. In some cases, you may need and x-ray examination.
After the doctor has determined the cause of the problem, it is decided how to fix it. First of all, I would like to mention the contraceptive drugs - with the help of such pills, the level of sex hormones can be normalized. Naturally, all appointments should be done only by a doctor. Oral contraceptives, normalizing hormones, can be divided into 2 main groups - mini-pili, containing one progesterone, and combined (here there is also estrogen).
Another very effective way to restore hormonal levels is dietary supplements. As a rule, they are prescribed at the initial stage of complex therapy. Also here you have to make changes to your diet. The thing is that certain foods increase the level of certain hormones. For example, if you have problems with progesterone, it is recommended to enrich the diet with olives, raspberries, avocados, raw nuts, sweet red pepper, pumpkin juice. Combined therapy should also include vitamins.
Violation of the hormonal background in women - causes of failures
In the human body, hormones regulate many physiological processes. Growth and development, physical and intellectual abilities, emotional sphere, sexual activity depend on their balance. Representatives of the weak half of humanity, in addition to changes in hormonal levels throughout their lives, also experience monthly fluctuations.
From the beginning of maturation until the end of the reproductive period, the female body is subordinated to the menstrual cycle, the regularity and uninterruptedness of which provides the main function - childbirth. An imbalance of sex steroids, as well as hormones of the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, leads to malfunction of many organs and systems.
What are the causes of hormonal disorders in women? The endocrine system is built on the interaction of the brain center of neuroendocrine regulation (hypothalamus and pituitary) and peripheral glands. All hormonal disruptions are conditionally divided into 2 large groups: due to impaired central regulation and caused by endocrine organ pathologies.
- Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction can be the result of an organic lesion (trauma, infectious disease, tumor) or a negative external and internal environment factor (exhaustion, chronic fatigue).
- The lack of peripheral endocrine glands can be caused by inflammation, trauma, congenital underdevelopment, and concomitant diseases.
Predisposing factors for the development of hormonal disorders in women are:
- common endocrinological diseases (diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism),
- heredity (determines the severity of PMS, menopausal symptoms),
- periods of hormonal changes in the body (puberty, childbirth, menopause, abortion),
- eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, starvation diets),
- inflammations of the female genital organs,
- congenital abnormalities.
How are female hormonal disorders
Symptoms of hormonal imbalance in women depend on the cause and nature of the disease: which particular endocrine glands fail, the level and ratio of which hormones are beyond the norm, their deficiency or excess is observed. There are common manifestations that allow a woman to suspect problems with the hormonal sphere:
- On the part of the reproductive system: disruptions of the menstrual cycle, difficulty in conceiving, miscarriage, decreased libido, anorgasmia, signs of masculinization (excessive body hair growth, male obesity, deterioration of the skin and hair).
- From the side of the central nervous system: emotional instability, irritability, depression, drowsiness, loss of memory and intelligence.
- From the side of metabolic processes: weight gain, osteoporosis.
All these symptoms are reversible if the imbalance is promptly identified and corrected. However, long-term sustained violations lead to serious consequences, many of which are difficult to cure and sometimes impossible:
- premature extinction of sexual functions,
- metabolic syndrome,
- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,
- atherosclerosis with a corresponding risk of stroke and heart attack,
- systemic osteoporosis complicated by multiple fractures
- hormone-dependent tumors.
Hormonal disorders in women of reproductive age are different from the problems that arise in mature girls and women during menopause.
Hormonal pathology in girls and adolescents
The first endocrine disorders in girls are associated with the process of puberty. Normally, it occurs in the period from 7–8 to 17–18 years and is accompanied by the development of secondary sexual characteristics, the formation of a feminine figure, menarche, the formation of a stable cycle, the ability to conceive and bear a child. However, this crucial period does not always go smoothly. Among the most common problems are:
- Premature puberty. It happens to be genetically determined when a girl grows up physically early, like all the women in her family - this is considered a variant of the norm. Another case is pathological premature ripening. If a girl younger than 7 years old suddenly begins to grow rapidly and develop physiologically, up to the first menstrual period of 4 to 5 years, this may indicate serious pathologies such as a pituitary / hypothalamus tumor or an ovarian tumor producing female sex hormones.
- Delayed sexual development is also institutional: the girl is formed much later than her peers, but at the same time has a completely healthy reproductive system. If, due to heredity, the girl is not predisposed to late maturation, it should be examined for pathologies of the pituitary gland and genetic abnormalities. Delayed development may have a more trivial reason - exhaustion caused by anorexia, hard diets.
- Blurred Verification. This is a disorder of sexual development, characterized by individual signs of masculinization in girls, for example, male type hair growth. This pathology develops mainly in 11 - 13 years. The girl comes on time menarche, normally formed secondary sexual characteristics. Then there are dramatic changes in appearance: high growth, obesity, severe acne, transverse purple stretch marks on the body. As a rule, these problems begin after a previous viral infection, tonsillitis, trauma, stress, and are defined by doctors as the hypothalamic syndrome of puberty. This pathology does not have a well-established cause, but is uniquely associated with disorders in the autonomic nervous system. Girls with GSPPS suffer from signs of dystonia: jumping pressure, headaches, increased fatigue. HSPS should be differentiated from genetically determined pathology of the ovaries and adrenal glands.
- Juvenile uterine bleeding (UMC) is a violation of the menstrual cycle in girls, associated with a failure in the chain “hypothalamus - pituitary - ovaries”. The likely cause of this phenomenon is mental and physical strain (intense training, study, vitamin deficiencies, past infection). Approximately 20% of girls can not cope with an excessively high load, and their hormonal levels fail. First, there is a delay in menstruation - from a couple of weeks to several months, then abundant and prolonged bleeding begins. Against the background of the UMC, anemia develops, disorders in the blood coagulation mechanism.
Female hormonal disorders in reproductive age
Signs of hormonal disorders in women are not always obvious. Sometimes the only problem that bothers the patient is long (more than a year) and unsuccessful attempts to get pregnant. A gynecological examination of a woman reveals problems in the ovaries and other endocrine glands, as a result of which ovulation is partially or completely blocked. In this case, the cycle itself is quite stable, external manifestations of pathology may be absent.
However, asymptomatic hormonal failure is a rare phenomenon, more often a woman has one or several signs:
- Amenorrhea - the absence of menstruation outside the period of pregnancy and lactation of central, adrenal or ovarian origin. Amenorrhea occurs on the background of stress, physical exhaustion, fasting, severe illness, or damage directly to the hypothalamic-pituitary center (traumatic brain injury, tumor, infection). Excessive secretion of adrenal steroids - the second cause of amenorrhea - indicates the presence of Itsenko-Cushing syndrome - severe endocrine pathology. Women with this disease have upper body obesity, weak hand muscles, a round red face, male type hair growth, stretch marks on the body, and bone fragility. The third option for the development of amenorrhea is ovarian dysfunction (polycystic ovary syndrome and other diseases). Sick ovaries are often reflected in the appearance: overweight, oily skin, thin greasy hair, hair growth on the face, abdomen, inner sides of the thighs.
- Dysfunctional uterine bleeding manifested violation of the duration of the cycle and the intensity of bleeding. Monthly ones lose their normal periodicity, occur chaotically after long delays, differ in long duration and abundance. The cycle can be either anovulatory (without an egg) and ovulatory. The reasons for such failures are rooted in infectious diseases, severe stress, exhaustion, abortions. In addition to infertility, dysfunctional bleeding involves endometrial pathologies, including malignant ones.
- Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) - contrary to stereotypes is not the norm. The malaise and emotional instability arising a few days before the beginning of menstruation indicate a violation of the regulatory function of the hypothalamus. The exact causes of this condition are not fully known, but its connection with hereditary factors, abortions, CNS lesions, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet has been proven. Symptoms of PMS appear cyclically and end with menstruation. The most common signs of the syndrome are psycho-emotional: irritability, depression, insomnia, fatigue. Migraines, nausea, puffiness, abdominal distension, discomfort in the mammary glands can torment a woman. In more severe cases, symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia appear: pressure jumps, palpitations, sweating, fear of death, chest pain.
Generalized algorithm of actions
- Find out the root cause. Hormones are produced by the endocrine glands (there are more than 100), because before starting “military actions”, you need to understand what you have to fight. It is impossible to do this at home, because it is necessary to begin with a visit to the doctor.
- Observe the diet. We will discuss the details below, but if you are used to having breakfast with sandwiches, having dinner at McDonalds, and having dinner around 11 pm, it would be too naive to expect a positive result.
- Think about the benefits of exercise. You will be surprised, but you can walk to the nearest store, and replace half a day at the beauty salon with a workout at the fitness center.
- Do not go to bed at midnight, so that in the morning you can jump on the front at attention with the first roosters. Put the body 8 hours of rest - this is not a whim, but an urgent need.
- Get rid of bad habits. 50 g of red wine at dinner will not hurt you, but if you change the bottle in the refrigerator every 2–3 days, this is too much. But cigarettes should go to the trash without any reservations.
- Tune in to positive. If you believe in success, then everything will definitely work out.
Attention! Medical adjustment of a woman's hormonal background should be carried out strictly under the supervision of a specialist. A review of the relevant drugs, as well as individual selection of the dosage, is beyond the scope of this material and cannot be objective outside of medical prescription!
Can I correct hormones at home? If you have already visited the doctor's office and agreed with him on the tactics of treatment, then yes. Moreover, no special effort is required from you.After all, with many deviations you can cope with a properly chosen diet or following a gentle daily regimen..
Estrogen (hormone of sexuality)
The attractiveness of a woman, her good mood, the level of physical and mental activity, the ability to conceive and carry a child depends on him. It also helps the cardiovascular system and is involved in the absorption of calcium.
- The main source of natural estrogen is soy, yogurt, milk, butter and hard cheeses.
- Traditional medicine proposes to use tinctures and decoctions based on hops, arnica, linden, licorice, sage, ginseng and chamomile to normalize the level of the hormone of sexuality.
- Употребление пива с целью повышения уровня эстрогена – порочная и вредная практика.
Its excess in the body can cause puffiness of the cheeks, morning depressed mood, poor sleep, chronic depression, constant stress and fat folds in the waist.
- Herbal medicine and folk remedies. Siberian ginseng, St. John's wort, licorice, ginkgo biloba, eleutherococcus, sea buckthorn will help you. Not bad also proved fish oil.
- As a morning tonic, choose regular tea, not traditional strong coffee.
- Prefer foods high in ascorbic acid. This is a green sweet pepper, citrus fruits, potatoes. In winter, drink multivitamin complexes, and add lemon to tea.
Growth hormone (growth hormone)
Manages the strengthening of muscles, the restoration of the body after prolonged physical and mental stress and is directly involved in the formation of our mood. Consequently, the lack of somatropin leads to a decrease in efficiency, the appearance of "extra" centimeters at the waist, makes the muscles flabby and weak.
- Foods high in protein increase levels of growth hormone. Prefer lean meat, poultry and saltwater fish.
- Highlight a few hours a week in sports (ball games, cycling, gym).
- Give up bad habits.
Melatonin (sleep hormone)
It promotes muscle relaxation, reduces the level of adrenaline in the blood and forms the right background for a good rest.
- Take a special complex with a high content of calcium, magnesium and vitamin B
- Add bananas, rice and corn to your daily diet.
- Take care of good ventilation and natural lighting in the bedroom.
Leptin (hormone satiety)
His shortage provokes a constant feeling of hunger, which affects the figure in the most negative way..
- The best supplier of leptin is Omega-3 polyunsaturated acids. They are found in some fatty fish species, nuts and sunflower.
- A necessary condition for the production of the hormone of fullness is a good sleep. Do not limit yourself at night. A short nap (30–40 minutes) will also be helpful.
Serotonin (the hormone of joy)
The informal name is a mood hormone. After all, the lack of serotonin provokes a sense of dissatisfaction with life, fatigue and weakness.
- The easiest way to control the level of joy hormone on the culinary front. In addition to the traditional dark chocolate, turkey, eggs, lean beef, chicken and hard cheese suit you.
- Refuse from alcoholic beverages, coffee and any yeast products.
Estradiol (femininity hormone)
Chronic fatigue, a tendency to depression, menstrual irregularities and excess weight are all a consequence of a lack of a major female hormone.. But the optimal level of estradiol provides a smooth skin, elastic and attractive breasts, as well as a high overall tone of the body.
- Review the diet. Dishes from low-fat varieties of meat and fish, eggs and vegetables will help you. And do not forget about fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Minimize the consumption of pasta, bread, coffee, beans and beer.
The normal level of this hormone is a necessary condition for conception, gestation and subsequent lactation.. He also participates in the process of digestion, regulates the menstrual cycle and normalizes the level of fat in the tissues.
- Add sweet red peppers, raw nuts, avocados, raspberries and olives to your diet. Progesterone is also found in many varieties of fish, seeds and pumpkin juice.
The hormone maintains the natural level of glucose in the blood, increases the permeability of cell membranes, participates in many metabolic processes in the body, helps in the transport of amino acids and inhibits the activity of enzymes that break down fats. It is important to understand that the lack of insulin is no less harmful than its excess. It is not contained in food, but the features of our diet can both slow down and speed up its formation.
- Insulin catalysts: beef, fish, dairy products, confectionery and bakery products, pasta, fruit, oatmeal and hard cheeses.
- Insulin inhibitors: legumes, cereals, low-fat dairy products, most vegetables, nuts, avocados, pears, pomegranates and citrus fruits (excluding tangerines).
- If you get the bulk of the food in the morning and break it by 4–5 times, insulin production decreases markedly. Reverse is also true: a full dinner, which accounts for half of the daily norm, increases the level of this hormone.
Dopamine (pleasure hormone)
It is responsible for mood and promotes the transmission of impulses of pleasure to the brain, ensures concentration of attention, normalizes the functioning of the kidneys, ensures proper sleep, slows down peristalsis of the stomach and most positively affects the cardiovascular system.
- Food products that contribute to the development of dopamine: fish, beets, fruits (bananas, strawberries, apples), chocolate, infusions and teas from dandelion, nettle, ginseng.
- If you want to increase the level of this hormone, do not neglect carnal pleasures: during sex, the concentration of dopamine increases significantly.
It regulates the most important functions of the body, dilates blood vessels, stimulates the production of gastric juice and enhances the contraction of the muscles of the uterus. But an excess of histamine can trigger an allergic reaction, which sometimes ends in anaphylactic shock.
- With a low level of histamine, it is recommended to give preference to cheeses, meats, smoked meats, fruits, fish and seafood, whole milk, vegetable oil, and some vegetables (eggplant, spinach, cabbage, tomatoes).
Mini-lecture on the normalization of hormonal levels in women
How to normalize the hormonal background of a woman
The symptoms of the disorder are quite recognizable, although some signs are easily confused with various diseases of the internal organs. External manifestations that occur against the background of hormonal imbalance are also often regarded by women as insufficient care or seasonal changes.
Fluctuations of hormones affect the general well-being of women, she begins to feel unwell, the menstrual cycle is broken. From the external manifestations should be highlighted as follows:
- tarnishing of the skin, their dryness or, conversely, excessive secretion of sebum,
- hair, nails become brittle,
- there is acne, skin rashes.
Restoration of hormonal background requires long-term combination therapy. Treatment should be selected by a specialist on the basis of the examination, as well as test results. After the initial examination, studies of the main female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, are prescribed. But it is also important to check the concentration and other indicators of the endocrine panel in order to know whether it is possible to restore the hormones of a woman.
They are responsible for youth, beauty, health and reproductive functions, and when identifying deviations require adjustment. If the process is disrupted, the woman has problems with conception, as well as difficulties in carrying a pregnancy. Against the background of hormonal fluctuations, diseases of the internal organs develop. An excess or deficiency of hormones often causes oncology and the emergence of tumors, as well as the development of chronic diseases.
Normal indicators can be restored only after identifying and eliminating the cause, and it is impossible to delay the examination. In addition, hormonal disorders, tests can reveal infectious diseases and bacterial diseases that require antibiotic treatment. Only after recovery and elimination of the causes will the hormones return to normal and therapy may not be necessary.
In case of hormonal imbalance, the diet plays one of the main roles, therefore, in order to return the indicators to normal and correct the hormonal background, it is important to monitor the quantity and quality of food consumed.
First of all, you need to pay attention to products that contribute to the production of natural hormones in the body. Replenish estrogen helps fatty milk, as well as products from it. To increase the concentration of female hormones it is necessary to consume vitamin E, which stimulates the endocrine system. The diet should include vegetable oils - flax or olive, but it should not be abused, everything should be in moderation. In addition, the following products contribute to the deficiency:
- wheat sprouts
- green peas young,
- chicken egg yolk.
Overweight woman has nothing to, but it is impossible to prevent exhaustion, it has a negative effect on the hormonal background. In the diet should be fats of animal origin, so dairy products, as well as meat are welcome in the medical diet.
To compensate for the lack of hormones in the female body can be not only the right balanced diet, but also, including in the diet, which includes so-called phytohormones. These include:
- soy and products based on it,
Only eating all of these vegetables, drinks and diet should be moderate, so that the balance is not disturbed even more.
An integral part of the complex treatment of hormonal disorders is a mobile lifestyle, special exercises, gymnastics, yoga, meditation, dancing.
Physical exercises are selected individually, depending on the daily workload, as well as the woman's regimen.
If there is no time to visit the gym or yoga and dance sections, regular jogging and walking will help keep in shape and normalize hormonal balance. The main condition is compliance with the regularity of classes, then normalization of the hormonal background in women will be faster.
Not only physical exertion, but also rest should be beneficial. The modern pace of life, constant stress and emotional upheavals negatively affect the work of the nervous system, which often leads to hormonal disorders.
Rest is an important part of the life cycle, so a good amount of time should be allocated to it and healthy sleep. To avoid psychological stress and physical disorders, it is important to get enough sleep. Sleep should take at least 8 hours a day. In addition, it is necessary to go to bed no later than 22 hours, since during this period it is easier for the body to recover the forces spent during the day.
No bad habits
Neither alcohol, nor even addiction to tobacco smoking is beneficial to health. Abuse of bad habits is one of the causes of hormonal disorders. It is also impossible to sharply distance oneself from cigarettes, it is difficult for the body to overcome such loads, but gradual refusal will only have a positive effect on the condition of not only the endocrine system, but also of the whole organism.
Without the harmful effects of alcohol and cigarettes, the treatment of hormonal disorders is faster and more efficient.
Herbal infusions and decoctions
Disorders of hormonal background were observed in women much earlier than you can imagine. Then there were no drugs for restoring the endocrine system and synthetic hormones, so they were replaced by herbs with phytohormones.
The task of stabilizing metabolic processes and activating the work of the glands is best handled by decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs both individually and in combination. To restore the normal balance of hormones help clover and licorice, oregano and flax seeds.
Cones are crushed and poured with one glass of boiling water. Then it is left to cool completely, you can drink the infusion that normalizes the work of the pituitary gland within half an hour. Cooked medication is enough for two doses. To use the infusion should be within a month every day, but always after meals.
It is better to take fresh herbs, finely chop them and pour 1 tablespoon of 100 ml of boiling water. Insist as herbal tea and drink one teaspoon throughout the day.
To restore the balance with the help of sage, it is necessary to take the already dried leaves. To prepare 1 liter of infusion, you need to brew 4 tablespoons of dry sage in this quantity of boiling water. Take the infusion of herbs should be 100 ml before a meal from the 16th day of the cycle for 10 days.
The endocrine system is very complex and the hormonal balance is a delicate process. Restoration with the help of drug therapy is a long-term, normalization of hormonal background requires the right approach. Independently take hormonal drugs can not, only strictly prescribed by a doctor.
After the diagnosis and clinical studies on the basis of the results of the analyzes, select drugs with a content of synthetic hormones that compensate for the deficiency in the body. For these purposes, contraceptive drugs with combined hormones are often used, they are all different and have different dosages, so they are selected individually for each. Only a specialist knows how to restore the hormones of a woman correctly.
For those who are planning a pregnancy, spend a different therapy. If progesterone is deficient in the second phase of the cycle, a synthetic analogue is additionally prescribed. It can be in tablets or in the form of a solution for injection. If, against the background of an imbalance, the process of maturation of the egg is impaired, then there is an estrogen deficiency, then drugs are used to stimulate its production. With elevated male hormones, antiandrogenic agents are prescribed.
In addition to drugs, also prescribed trace elements and vitamins for the normalization of hormonal levels. They are necessary both in planning and in pregnancy, as well as in restoring the hormonal background of a woman in any period of life.
What causes hormonal changes?
Changes in hormonal levels are caused by a large number of internal and external factors: age restructuring of the body, various diseases, psycho-emotional state, developmental anomalies, climatic and environmental conditions, etc.
For example, the slowdown of a number of physiological processes in winter is associated with changes in hormonal levels, and is manifested by corresponding deviations in well-being. In the spring, such processes are activated, which is marked by a "hormonal explosion."
There are also differences between the female and male hormones.
The hormonal background of a woman is unstable, and depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle.
An increase in hormonal levels is observed during pregnancy: the production of a large amount of hormones is observed in the first trimester, and then there is a gradual adaptation of the organism of the future mother to a new state.
What are the main glands that produce hormones?
The endocrine system consists of the following components: the thyroid, parathyroid (parathyroid), pancreas, thymus (goitre) glands, adrenal glands and genitals, the pituitary and pineal gland (pineal gland).
The activity of each component of the endocrine system is interrelated with the functioning of the rest:
- The pituitary gland produces hormones (tropic hormones, prolactin, etc.) that regulate the activity of other endocrine glands.
- Thyroid hormones (thyroid hormones - hormones containing iodine: triiodothyronine (TK) and thyroxin (T4)) are responsible for the processes of development, growth and metabolism.
- Parathyroid produces parathyroid hormones (parathyreocrines) and regulates calcium-phosphorus metabolism in the body.
- The adrenal cortex produces sex hormones and hormones responsible for carbohydrate, fat, protein and mineral exchanges. Adrenaline and noradrenaline are formed in the adrenal medulla, which support normal heart function, pressure, body temperature and blood glucose levels. Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids are also synthesized in the adrenal glands.
- The hormones of the pancreas (insulin, glucagon) are responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates and other substances.
- Gonads provide the formation of secondary sexual characteristics and the formation of germ cells.
- Epiphysis regulates the body's cyclic and rhythmic processes, producing the night hormone melatonin and the day hormone serotonin.
- Thymus produces hormones responsible for the development of immune cells.
Features hormonal background of a woman
2. Progesterone is a pregnancy hormone synthesized by the corpus luteum of the ovary. In the absence of pregnancy, the yellow body is absorbed, the amount of progesterone is reduced. This hormone determines the possibility of a woman to become a mother, regulating the menstrual cycle, conception and carrying. Prepares breastfeeding for breastfeeding. Reduced progesterone levels can cause the development of inflammatory processes in the uterus, spontaneous abortion, disruption of the ovulatory cycle, uterine bleeding, an increase in the duration and pain of menstruation. Elevated levels of progesterone can lead to menstrual disorders, the formation of yellow body cyst, the development of renal failure.
3. Testosterone - produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands, provides sexual desire in women. Снижение уровня такого гормона может вызвать почечную недостаточность, сбой в работе потовых и сальных желез, нарушение менструального цикла. Повышение содержания тестостерона проявляется оволосенением по мужскому типу, снижением тембра голоса.
4. Hormones of the pituitary and hypothalamus (produces liberins and beds that regulate the formation of hormones in the pituitary gland).
5.Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - produced in the pituitary gland, stimulates the maturation of a new follicle in the ovary.
6.Luteinizing hormone (LH) - produced by the pituitary gland, responsible for ovulation in the follicle and the synthesis of estrogen in the ovary. Begins to act after working FSH.
7. Prolactin - affects the corpus luteum, causing the formation of progesterone, causes the development of the mammary glands in adolescent girls, is responsible for the production of milk in a nursing woman.
8.Oxytocin - at the end of pregnancy and after childbirth causes contraction of the uterus and muscles of the mammary gland, increasing the formation of milk.
9. Human gonadotropin chorion (GHC) is produced by the placenta during pregnancy. Pregnancy tests are based on a qualitative analysis of the content of such a hormone in the urine. Low levels of GHC may indicate non-developing or ectopic pregnancy, the threat of miscarriage, and several other problems. High levels of HCX in the non-pregnant state can be a sign of tumor processes in the body.
Diseases causing a hormonal failure:
- polycystic ovaries and adrenal tumors lead to an increase in testosterone production,
- A pituitary tumor can cause an increase in the production of any sex hormone, depending on the location of the formation,
- uterine fibroids,
- viral infections (influenza, rubella, measles, mumps, etc.).
Genetic predisposition to hormonal imbalance, ecological situation, overwork, disturbance of diet and sleep, the period of the onset of sexual activity (both too early and too late have a significant effect) are essential. A significant change in hormonal levels is observed after an abortion.
Diagnosis of hormonal disorders implies blood tests for sex hormones (taken on a strictly specific day of the menstrual cycle), ultrasound of the adrenal glands and pelvic organs.
Treatment of hormonal disorders
Conducted by a gynecologist-endocrinologist, and includes the elimination of the cause of the disease, taking vitamins and hormonal drugs, according to an individually selected scheme. The important role played by the provision of psychotherapeutic care to patients with increased or decreased hormonal levels. In severe cases, surgery is possible.
Hormone failure caused by natural factors, as a rule, does not require treatment. So, after childbirth, the restoration of hormonal background occurs spontaneously. When menopause occurs, traditional medicine can help relieve symptoms.
Immediate treatment requires a hormonal failure after an abortion, which, otherwise, can lead to serious problems. It is also necessary to normalize the hormonal background in the case of the development of fibroids, polycystosis, polyps and other diseases, to prevent their degeneration into malignant tumors.
Folk methods of normalizing hormonal levels in women
- Traditional healers recommend such herbs that normalize hormones, such as calendula, nettle and meadow clover. The use of these components in the composition of fees allows you to restore hormones.
- To facilitate well-being in menopause, recommend infusions of lily of the valley, St. John's wort, sage, peppermint, lemon balm.
- Correction of the hormonal background is possible with the help of acupuncture, aromatherapy and acupressure.
- According to the advice of lithotherapists (stone treatment specialists), decorations made of stones that are considered "female" will help normalize hormonal background: hematite, beryl, andradite.
These methods require regular holding for a long time.
Features hormonal background in men
The most common question about the study of hormonal background in men arises when receiving an unsatisfactory result of spermograms, or when it is necessary to determine the ability to conceive. In this regard, the following hormones are determined:
1.Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - activates Sertoli cells (causes the growth of deferent tubules), increases the production of testosterone, promoting the maturation of sperm. Elevated levels of FSH may indicate diseases such as alcoholism, testicular inflammation (orchitis), renal failure, a pituitary tumor, and insufficient function of the sex glands. In addition, a high level of FSH can be observed after taking certain drugs, exposure to X-rays. A decrease in the level of FSH is observed after surgery, with obesity, decreased hypothalamic or pituitary function, fasting, after taking certain drugs (anabolic steroids, etc.).
2.Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the formation of testosterone by Leydig cells, increases the permeability of testes for the seminiferous tubules. A high level of this hormone can be a sign of both a pituitary tumor and kidney failure, as well as the result of stress, fasting, and sports training. A decrease in LH is observed with genetic abnormalities, smoking, obesity, stressful conditions, nervous exhaustion, reduced function of the pituitary or hypothalamus.
3.Testosterone produced in the testes and adrenal cortex, affects the formation of secondary sexual characteristics, the development of muscle mass and skeleton, has an activating effect on sexual function (sexual desire, potency), stimulates the production of spermatozoa, regulates the activity of the sebaceous glands and bone marrow. Daily fluctuations of testosterone level are noticeable: a higher content in the morning time with a tendency to decrease in the evening. A high level may indicate hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex, in boys, premature puberty. Low testosterone levels are characteristic of Down syndrome, chronic prostatitis, renal failure, and obesity. Deviation from the norm can be observed after taking some medications.
4.Prolactin participates in the regulation of water-salt metabolism, contributes to the production of testosterone, the formation and development of spermatozoa. A normal increase in prolactin is observed during sleep, sexual intercourse, and physical exertion. Pathological increase in the level of the hormone is observed in hypothyroidism, cirrhosis, autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, etc.), vitamin B deficiency6 Hyperprolactinemia (continuous increase of prolactin) is one of the most significant causes of male infertility. Reduced prolactin levels are the result of taking a number of drugs (anticonvulsants, morphine, etc.), insufficiency or apoplexy of the pituitary gland.
5.Estradiol - one of the female sex hormones of the estrogen class. It is formed in the testes and in the adrenal cortex, but the main part of this hormone is synthesized from testosterone in peripheral tissues. As a result, an increase in subcutaneous fat (obesity) leads to an increase in the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Estradiol exhibits anabolic activity, accelerates bone growth, delays the output of sodium and water from the body, reduces cholesterol levels, but at the same time helps to increase irritability and nervous tension. An increase in the estradiol content is characteristic of some testicular tumors, cirrhosis, and medication (anabolic steroids, cimetidine, troleandomycin, etc.). A decrease in estradiol is observed with weight loss, a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates, in vegetarians, when smoking, hypogonadism (hypoplasia of the gonads), chronic prostatitis, and other diseases. Also, the reduction may be due to the use of chemotherapy drugs, aminoglutethimide and other drugs.
6. Analysis on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in men, it is used in the diagnosis of testicular tumors.
Disruption of hormonal levels in men, due to age-related changes, causes a number of problems:
- reduced performance
- high blood pressure
- deterioration of the cardiovascular and circulatory system,
- development of diabetes
- increased bone fragility, etc.
Diagnosis of disorders and treatment of hormonal imbalances in men is similar to those in women. A specific requirement is the need to determine the level of prolactin and gonadotropins when a decrease in testosterone is detected. Treatment and substitution treatment regimens are selected individually.
Is there a prevention of hormonal disorders?
The human body is a single system in which even the slightest deviation of the content of one hormone from the norm can lead to a violation of the entire hormonal background, and cause serious changes in health. Therefore, it is very important to consult a specialist in a timely manner (and, possibly, not one), in order to avoid serious consequences. Self-medication in this case is unacceptable! Like any disease, hormonal disorders sometimes it is easier to prevent than to cure: observe diet and sleep, avoid stressful situations, carry out the treatment of concomitant diseases in time, and so on.
In any case, the best prevention of hormonal disorders are love and happiness!
Post abortion violations
Hormonal disruption is often paid by women for abortion. Abortion is not only a psychological and physical trauma, but also a sharp breakdown of the neuroendocrine processes occurring in the body after conception. The consequences of the first abortion are especially dangerous, regardless of the period at which the intervention took place.
Normally, hormones should recover on their own within a month after surgery. When medical abortion requires endocrine correction, since the drugs that cause interruption, by themselves, upset the balance of female hormones.
If after a month the cycle did not normalize, weight increased, stretch marks, emotional instability, migraine-like pains, pressure appeared - there is every reason to suspect that the abortion did not pass without a trace for the hormonal system.
Effect of contraceptives
Of particular concern to doctors are contraceptives, namely those that a woman begins to take without the consent of her doctor. The action of some of them is based on the oppression of the ovaries, and thus reducing the production of female hormones.
Modern birth control pills, in other words, oral contraceptives, consist of one or two hormones: progesterone and estrogen (combined) and consisting of one progesterone (mini-drank).
Combined contraceptives can be with a dose of hormones:
All synthetic hormones are analogues of female sex hormones that are constantly produced in a woman's body. Taking contraceptive synthesized and preformed estrogen and progesterone, inhibited the production of other important hormones responsible for the maturation of the egg. At the same time, libido can completely disappear, sleep can be disturbed, excess weight can appear and much more. Thus, contraceptive pills can negatively affect the normal rhythm of life and cause side effects in the form of nausea, vomiting, dizziness. After birth control pills are stopped, hormonal levels are restored within 2-3 weeks. Therefore, contraceptives must be coordinated with your doctor, although they are considered the most effective way to prevent unwanted pregnancies. But a change in the ovaries can cause some diseases that should not be allowed (fibroids, cysts). In some cases, contraceptives are ineffective and then comes the risk of abnormal development of the fetus, therefore, it is recommended that surgery to remove the fetus. This is a huge stress for the female body, the consequences of which will affect over the years, but they will be negative and associated with the failure of hormonal levels. So, at first glance, harmless and aimed at maintaining stability in life, birth control pills can harm.
The thyroid and adrenal glands
Some hormones are produced by the organs of internal secretion. The endocrine system must be healthy and produce all the hormones peculiar to it, so that a person can do without hormone replacement therapy. Lack or excess of one of the hormones can lead to illness of the whole organism.
Some hormones are produced by the thyroid gland. If she is afflicted with a disease, then immediately everything will affect the production of thyroid hormones. This substance is responsible for the psycho-emotional state of a person. Normalization of the thyroid can be restored by folk remedies. For example, enter in your diet of sea kale and salads from it. Useful will be dishes from radish, turnip, radish.
Recommended broths of chokeberry, currants, cherries, apples, dates and persimmon. Very well increase the iodine content in the body of eggplants, garlic, spinach, tomatoes, onions. To normalize thyroid function, not only iodine is needed, but also selenium, cobalt and manganese. A balanced flow of these elements into the body, normalizes hormones.
The adrenal glands produce cortisol, and an increase in its production can be caused by stress. Post-stress restoration with folk remedies is a decoction of valerian root, mint and oregano. If a lot of cortisol is bad. Its excess inhibits the thyroid gland and immunodeficiency appears from a lack of thyroid hormones. Tea with lemon and honey in the morning is not only microelements and vitamins, it is one of the effective sedatives that relax the nervous system. Normalization of mood, correction of psycho-emotional state is one of the forms of protection of the body from stress. At the same time, the norm of these hormones gives us not only excellent well-being, but also a beautiful appearance.
What are the symptoms
Recognize the main signs of hormonal failure can be yourself.
The main symptoms of failure are:
- Violation of the menstrual cycle and the severe course of premenstrual syndrome,
- Weight gain and dramatic weight loss,
- Changes in the emotional and mental health of women: frequent mood swings, depression, excessive irritability,
- Decreased sexual activity
- Excessive body hair growth and acne,
- Strong hair loss on the head,
All these signs serve as a signal to the woman that it is necessary to urgently take up her health and contact a specialist for help.
The consequences of hormonal disorders in women can manifest themselves after some time.
These effects include:
- Infertility and miscarriage,
- Gynecological diseases such as polycystic ovary, uterine myoma,
- Breast diseases,
- The formation of tumors.
It is very important for a woman to see a doctor at the first signs of hormonal failure and to undergo the necessary blood tests for further research on hormone levels.
True causes can be identified only after a detailed examination of the woman’s body.
But the main reasons for the violation of hormonal disruption, can be called the following:
- Weakened immunity
- Past infections,
- Disorders in the endocrine system,
- Leading the wrong lifestyle
- Taking hormonal drugs and birth control pills,
- Depression and constant stress.
Diet and proper nutrition
With the help of proper nutrition you can achieve some improvements in the work of hormones in a woman’s body.
To restore the hormonal background, women need to fall in love with seafood. In the diet it is useful to include sea kale, spinach, garlic, dates, persimmon and eggplant.
It is important to consume enough protein in order to regulate the level of the hormone estradiol. Estradiol - is one of the most important female hormones, produced by the ovaries.
To normalize hormone levels, it is useful to eat foods rich in phytoestrogens.
Phytoestrogens are found in rice, legumes (peas, beans), flax seeds, green leafy vegetables, cabbage, red grapes, apples.
With an excess of testosterone in the food, it is important to use oily marine fish, olive and flaxseed oil.
With a lack of the hormone progesterone, it is helpful to consume citrus fruits, wild rose and black currant.
It is also necessary to reduce the number of products to normalize hormone levels. These products include fatty meats, canned goods, sausages, pastries.
It is important to try to reduce the consumption of coffee and black tea. As an alternative, chicory and herbal teas are perfect.
The use of folk remedies
With the help of folk remedies, it is also possible to restore the hormonal background in the body.
There are some useful herbs that can help cope with women's problems in the form of hormonal failure.
- Sage. It stimulates the production of the hormone estrogen. Принимать шалфей следует с 6 по 15 день цикла. Заварить траву рекомендуется следующим образом: столовая ложка шалфея на один стакан заливается кипятком и настаивается примерно 25 минут.Take a third of the glass before eating.
- Oregano. It helps the body to develop female hormones. This grass is also called "female grass". The broth is prepared as well as sage decoction. It should be taken twice a day before meals.
- Linden flowers. Experts suggest taking linden with folic acid and vitamins A, E. You can make delicious and healing tea from all the ingredients. Take the decoction is recommended three times a day.
Hormones play a very important role in the life of every woman.
It is important to maintain the level of hormones in a positive state.
As a preventive measure is recommended:
- Sleep about 8 hours a day,
- Do sports and all physical activities
- Eat right and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Improve hormones and can be using aromatherapy and massage.
To normalize the hormonal background in women, it is important to eliminate any stress, since stress is the cause of many diseases in the body of any person.
Normalize hormones can be independently, adhering to useful tips.
But the best solution, of course, would be if a woman immediately turns to a specialist when she detects symptoms of a hormonal failure.
Postpartum hormonal failure
Physiological restructuring of the body after childbirth occurs more than one month. Lack of menstruation, unstable cycle, excess weight during this period are not signs of hormonal distress. Over time, everything should return to normal. With sufficient mobility and a balanced diet, even breastfeeding does not prevent the restoration of the pregnant form.
However, if lactation has already ended, and the woman still has problems with weight, menstruation, there is a spotting outside of menstruation, hair on her body and face grows, symptoms of neurosis develop - you need to contact gynecologists.
Hormonal failure in the postpartum period can be triggered by overwork, depression, complications, somatic diseases, infections.
Hormonal menopausal disorders
Hormonal disorders in women after 40 years are mainly associated with the gradual attenuation of the reproductive function. The physiological ability to become a mother can last up to 45 - 50 years, but the chances of getting pregnant are reduced every year. Hormonal restructuring of the body is accompanied by an irregular cycle and climacteric syndrome.
After 45 years, the female body is preparing to stop menstruation: the ovaries reduce the production of estrogen - the main hormone responsible for the beauty and youth of the beautiful half of humanity. A woman becomes irritable, gets tired quickly, feels unwell - the so-called hot flashes. Feelings of heat, sweating, palpitations roll attacks and bring physical and psychological discomfort. However, with the onset of menopause, these symptoms diminish.
Natural extinction of the production of estrogen and the associated deterioration of well-being are not pathological. However, in some women, menopause is severe, with serious hormonal disorders: obesity, the development of glucose tolerance, diabetes, systemic osteoporosis, and lipid metabolism failures.
Pathological menopause is often hereditary, but an unhealthy lifestyle contributes to its occurrence:
- bad habits,
- poor nutrition,
Women with complicated gynecological and obstetric history are also at risk. If a patient at a reproductive age was observed to have menstrual irregularities, dysfunctional bleeding, PMS, toxicosis, then the chances that menopause will pass easily are minimal. Severe childbirth, miscarriages, abortions, chronic inflammation of the female organs, too early and too late maturation, as well as the lack of childbirth and incomplete sex life can significantly complicate menopausal manifestations. Menopausal women with neurotic and mental disorders suffer.
Normalization of female hormonal background
Treatment of hormonal disorders in women begins with a comprehensive examination:
- history taking,
- gynecological examination,
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs, liver, adrenal glands,
- blood test for hormone levels (estrogens, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, FSH, LH),
- consultation of the endocrinologist,
- Thyroid ultrasound, blood test for T3, T4, TSH,
- blood sugar test, glucose tolerance test,
- blood test for lipoproteins,
- X-ray examination (hysteroscopy, snapshot of the Turkish saddle),
First of all, tumors of the ovaries, adrenal glands, brain that cause endocrine disorders are excluded. Their treatment involves surgery and serious therapeutic measures (radiation, hormonal, chemotherapy).
In other cases, treatment is to eliminate the factors that provoked the failure, and to correct hormonal levels. In women, therapy is carried out by a gynecologist-endocrinologist. It is aimed at the normalization of menstrual and childbearing functions, weight loss, relief of unpleasant symptoms.
Changes in nutrition and lifestyle
Photo: kefir with berries
The nature of food and lifestyle significantly affect the hormonal background. Diet and physical activity have a beneficial effect on the female body: they maintain a normal body weight, activate metabolism, promote good mood and well-being. Sometimes it is enough to adjust the diet, exercise regularly, give up bad habits and get enough sleep so that the hormonal balance begins to recover.
It is necessary to exclude from the menu fatty, floury, fried foods, carbohydrates with high glycemic index, alcohol. With a lack of estrogen, it is recommended to consume foods containing the main “reproductive” vitamins A and E, as well as phytohormones:
- fish and seafood,
- green and orange vegetables,
- vegetable oils,
- sunflower seeds,
Wild yams, dried fruits, persimmons, and apples are useful for replenishing the deficiency of progesterone.
When hormonal imbalance women are prescribed vitamin and mineral preparations as sources of:
- osteoporosis warning calcium,
- vitamin A, involved in the synthesis of sex steroids and controlling progesterone levels,
- vitamin C, which regulates the production of adrenal hormones and the nervous system,
- tocopherol, which stimulates the function of the thyroid gland,
- B-group vitamins, magnesium,
- folic acid.
Reception of homeopathic remedies is recommended - Cyclodinone, Mastodinon, Klimadinona - for 3 months. These supplements gently and without harm to health regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce the symptoms of PMS, menopause, mastopathy.
Treatment of female disorders with hormonal drugs is long and difficult. It is based on the indicators of hormones in the body of a particular patient and requires an individual approach. Oral contraceptives with different dosages and the ratio of synthetic estrogens and progestogens are most commonly used for therapeutic purposes. Inadequate therapy can lead to aggravation of the pathology, and there can be no talk of self-administration of COC in women with impaired endocrine status.
For complex disorders, doctors do not use contraceptive, but therapeutic hormonal drugs. The choice of pills, the treatment regimen and the duration of the course are exclusively within the competence of an experienced gynecologist-endocrinologist:
- Cyclic replacement therapy with estrogen preparations in hypoplasia of the reproductive organs is used to form the cycle, the development of the ovaries and the uterus.
- Stimulating therapy with large doses of estrogen and progesterone is aimed at creating the ovulatory cycle, restoring the endocrine functions of the ovaries and hypothalamus.
- Gonadotropin treatment is used to stimulate the growth of follicles. Practiced by the injection of hormones FSH and hCG.
- The introduction of shock doses of estrogen and progesterone according to a specific scheme helps to adjust the cycle in case of insufficiency of certain phases.
Folk remedies for the normalization of hormonal background
Any impact on the hormones should be carried out under medical supervision, even if it is popular recipes. With the permission of the doctor, you can use tools that compensate for the deficiency of female hormones by phytoestrogens: decoction of clover, nettle, calendula.
Menopausal women are helped by coping with the unpleasant symptoms of mint, sage, St. John's wort, lemon balm, lily of the valley, black raven.
A few more recipes:
- Infusion vitex sacred. At night, brew the grass in a thermos in the ratio of 1 tbsp. l raw materials for 2 cups boiling water. The finished product is drunk throughout the day to regulate the cycle and stimulate ovulation.
- Potentilla tea goose. In a glass of hot water to brew 1 tsp. herbs, to drink in the morning and in the evening, starting a week before menstruation, finish on the first day of bleeding. Helps to reduce the pain and profusion of menstruation.
- Linseed oil. Filling them with salads or drinking in their pure form, 2 tbsp. l per day you can fill the lack of estrogen in the female body.
Herbs and hormones
Our ancestors also felt a lack of hormones. They knew how to replace female hormones with this or that herb. There are plants that normalize balance, stabilize and restore it. Healers offer effective infusions and decoctions of several herbs at once. For example, oregano, clover, licorice and flax seeds work together very well and normalize the endocrine system. Substitutes for female hormones are soy, fresh or dried forest blackberries and they must be included in the food. Harm from their consumption will not be any, but the restoration of the balance of hormones will take place.
Herbs - one of the effective means for the normalization of women's health. Infusions of oregano and shepherd's bag normalize the menstrual cycle. Infusion is prepared as follows: finely chopped and fresh grass in the amount of 2 tbsp. spoons pour boiling water (200 ml) and insist, like tea in a teapot. Drink a teaspoon throughout the day.
Healers love herbs and know which ones are needed for hormonal abnormalities in women. They recommend the use of hops. The drug is prepared from hop cones. They are crushed, and then 1 tbsp. a spoonful of cones pour a glass of boiled, hot water. After 1-2 hours, the tincture is ready, it is drunk half a cup before meals.
Herb sage is very helpful in restoring hormonal levels. Dried sage leaves pour boiling water, insist in a warm place for 0.5 hours. Accept from 15 to 24 day of the menstrual cycle, 0.5 cup before meals.
You can normalize hormonal background with flax seeds - an excellent source of estrogen. To do this, make a powder from the seeds every day. Adding to another food (sour cream or kefir), restore hormones.
Tincture of young herbs, such as nettle, is also an excellent tool to normalize the production of female hormones. The drug is done like this: in a jar filled with nettle leaves, add vodka and leave in the sun for the whole week. Then they clean the jar in a dark and cold place and insist for another week. Ready tincture to take 1 tbsp. spoon before a meal.
You can restore hormones using wormwood grass. From crushed and dried leaves make a decoction. Take 1 tbsp. spoon and pour boiling water in a glass, time infusion - 15 minutes. Take from the 1st to the 5th day of the ovulation cycle, 2-3 tablespoons per day.
Folk remedy is very effective if it is bee milk and bee pollen. These are biologically active substances, and they gently regulate the synthesis of hormones in the body. They are bought from beekeepers and taken on prescription.
It should be remembered that with serious hormonal disruptions identified during individual examinations of the body, therapeutic treatment methods are used. Folk remedies are in addition to treatment. But for the prevention of taking decoctions and herbal tinctures, it is always recommended for women who may experience a shortage or excess of one or another hormone.