The greatest miracle that makes us wonder at the perfection and forethought of Mother Nature is the conception of a child. How does a large living organism develop from two small cells? What happens to the egg in the first few days? On the mysteries of the birth of a new life, we'll talk today.
What is the process of conception
Conception, causing the onset of pregnancy and the ability to have children, is not surprising. Many people think that this happens during intercourse, but it is not. Successful conception of a child is a complex biological process that takes place in several stages and takes much more time than we are accustomed to thinking and the female body, ready to bear the child, prepares for it again and again every month.
Even in the womb, the girl's body begins its preparation for the future role of the continuer of the gens. In the first months of development, oogonies form in the female embryo, and then the oocytes from which eggs will develop. At first there are several millions of them, but several hundred of them ripen.
In the ovaries of a newborn girl, the oocytes, with the follicular cells around them, stop their development at one of the stages of division - the first prophase of meiosis, waiting for “their hour”, which will occur only after puberty. Then, under the influence of pituitary gonadotropic hormones, 15-20 thousand follicles begin to grow.
Due to the influence of the same hormones, the oocytes, they are the eggs, continue their division, but only one of them is destined to become “the same” and prepare for conception.
In the middle of each monthly cycle, the pituitary gland provides a large release of luteinizing hormone, under the action of which ovulation occurs and a mature oocyte leaves the follicle.
What influences conception
Ovulation - from the Latin term "ovum", meaning egg - a process that provides release and access to the abdominal cavity of the egg ready for fertilization. This is one of the phases of a woman's menstrual cycle.
Of course, the birth of a new life is entirely dependent on regular, undisturbed monthly ovulations and the readiness of the female body to have children. However, the key to successful conception is not only ovulation. Among other things, it is a well-established mechanism for the interaction of the female egg with the male spermatozoon.
We understand that the term “conception” means their successful merger, but not everyone knows how it happens. In fact, everything is a little more complicated than we think. The conception process has several stages:
- Within about 12-16 days from the start of the menstrual cycle, the oocyte matures inside the follicle and during ovulation enters the pelvic cavity.
- At the same time the villi of the fallopian tube are activated. With wavelike movements they push the released egg, capture it and send it to the funnel, from where the mature oocyte begins its movement along the egg-conducting channel.
- At the end of sexual intercourse, spermatozoa actively overcome the distance from the vagina through the cervix and uterus to the fallopian tubes. During the passage of this path, part of them perishes, and only the most active will get to the goal. But among them, the “champion” will be only one.
- When meeting with an egg in the fallopian tube, the sperm try to dissolve its two protective shells with its enzymes - the radiant crown and the shiny one.
- If there are few active male cells, there will not be enough enzymes to dissolve the membranes of the oocyte.
- Through the loose radiant crown, the most “smart” sperm penetrates inside. This is where the merging process takes place, which we call fertilization or, in fact, conception.
Having merged together the female and male halves form one diploid cell - a zygote containing a double set of chromosomes. This is the very first stage of the embryo's nascent life.
But to become a zygote embryo must go through certain stages of development. First, thanks to the movements of the ciliary epithelium of the tube and contractions of its walls, the zygote begins to move along the fallopian canal to the uterine cavity.
Once in the uterus, it is fixed on the mucous membrane of one of the walls and is now rightly called an embryo - this is the process of implantation.
Knowing all the above features and stages, a woman can independently determine the most successful time for conception.
Favorable days for conception
So, we found that for successful conception you need a certain time and the necessary components. Spermatozoa reaching the fallopian tubes retain their ability to fertilize for five days, while the egg cell remains viable for up to 24 hours. Therefore, it is often the male sex cells that “wait” for the moment the egg enters the tube.
Knowing how long the conception lasts, one can calculate the most favorable days for it.
There are only six - 5 days before the release of the egg and the day of ovulation. These are the days when the probability of becoming pregnant is highest is called the “window of conception”. In the literature one can come across another term - “fetal window”. If we assume that ovulation takes place on the 14th day from the beginning of the menstrual cycle, then the high chances for conception will fall from about the 10th to the 14th day inclusive.
Do not forget that each organism is individual, the average duration of the monthly cycle for women may be different, which means that you cannot take the exact date on the 14th day as a standard.
In addition to counting days, there are indirect signs and symptoms that help determine the onset of ovulation:
- soreness, engorgement and high sensitivity of the mammary glands,
- spasmodic abdominal pain,
- increase in basal temperature
- an increase in cervical secretions and a change in their viscosity — in the days of the "fetal window", their consistency and appearance resemble egg white.
By noting the monthly onset of symptoms, you can determine on which day of the cycle ovulation occurs. And having this information and knowing the rules of conception, you can choose the most opportune moment to create a new life.
Nature has created a complex conception mechanism so that the female body can best prepare for pregnancy and childbearing.
Implanted into the endometrium, the embryo begins its development with the formation of chorionic villi - the germinal part of a unique organ that will appear a little later - the placenta. It is the chorion that produces the "hormone of pregnant" - chorionic gonadotropin, the appearance in the blood and the increase in the level of which causes the appearance of the first symptoms of pregnancy. Push the idea of an interesting situation before the delay and medical confirmation of pregnancy can:
- malaise, constant fatigue and sleepiness,
- swelling and tenderness of the mammary glands,
- slight yellow or pinkish vaginal discharge,
- nagging pain, reminiscent of pain during menstruation.
Of course, it is still too early to talk about pregnancy, but knowing all about conception and what is happening these days inside the female body, one can already suspect a miracle.
When pregnancy begins after ovulation and conception
The time it takes for the fertilized egg to travel through the fallopian tubes depends on the activity of the ciliary epithelium and the strength of the contractile movements of the latter. Normally, this period takes 5-6 days. At the same time, 26-30 hours after fertilization, the zygote begins to divide, turning into a multicellular embryo. On the last day, the future fetus stops its journey through the tubes and is attached to the wall of the uterus.
Conception and pregnancy what is the difference
While the zygote is dividing and moving through the pipes, this is still the period of conception. Pregnancy is considered the development of the fetus from the moment of implantation. It is necessary to clearly understand the difference between the embryonic and obstetric terms.
A fetal period or fetal weeks is the term of pregnancy directly from the moment of conception of the baby. The difficulty lies in the fact that in most cases it is almost impossible to accurately determine this moment. This term is used only for scientific purposes and for IVF.
Obstetric term - weeks, counted from the first day of the last menstruation. This period is, on average, 2 weeks longer than the embryonic one, but the doctors are guided by it, counting the estimated date of birth.
Alternative conception methods
Women unable to conceive a child, thanks to assisted reproductive technologies, modern medicine gives a chance to survive a wonderful period of pregnancy and give birth to a baby. The technique of artificial insemination is improved every year and more and more infertile couples around the world, thanks to various IVF methods, become parents.
The basis of alternative conception methods is fertilization of the egg in a test tube, outside the female body - "in vitro". To do this, they use both sexual intake from both parents and donor eggs, as well as cryopreservation technologies.
Some couples need only one intercourse to become parents. Others spend in unsuccessful attempts to become pregnant for years and the more they fail, the more often a couple hears advice from “knowledgeable” relatives, friends and acquaintances. And myths about conception are born. Here are the most common ones:
It all depends on the posture
Many believe that it is possible to conceive a child only in the missionary position. But it is not. The choice of posture does not affect conception.
Conception is a process that hides many secrets in itself, but every year science advances in their disclosure. Due to the fact that we know about the interaction of male and female germ cells, we can calculate auspicious days, prepare for future pregnancies and become parents when we are ready for this great responsibility.
The studied conception mechanism allows many couples who have lost the hope of parenthood to become happy and have a baby. Listen to your body and it will reveal its secrets to you.
How to determine ovulation?
Ovulation - phase of the menstrual cyclein which the release of the egg from the follicle. This time is considered the most favorable for the conception of a future baby.
Healthy woman monthly in the middle of the cycle, one egg is released. If fertilization occurs, it is fixed inside the uterus and becomes pregnant.
If not, the woman's body begins to prepare for the next cycle, the beginning of which becomes menstruation.
There are several ways you can determine ovulation:
- Calendar method. The essence of the technique is that the release of the egg occurs 14 days before the start of the next menstruation. This method of calculation is suitable for women who have a regular cycle.
- Physiological method. The female body is designed so that ovulation must end with pregnancy. Therefore, during the release of the egg, estrogen is released, which leads to an increase in libido, changes in the consistency of secretions. Some women feel a kind of tingling pain in the ovary.
- Temperature method. The day of release of the egg differs from the rest of the days in that the basal temperature rises by 0.4 degrees. To calculate such a change, it is necessary to measure the temperature daily with an electronic thermometer every day, without getting out of bed.
- Application tests. Pharmacies sell special tests to determine ovulation. They are externally identical to pregnancy tests, but they respond to the growth of luteinizing hormone (LH), and not chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). To accurately determine ovulation, you need to carry out these tests daily in the middle of the cycle - in exactly the same way as pregnancy tests.
- Ultrasound control. With the help of highly sensitive ultrasound diagnostic devices, it is possible to check the growth and maturation of the follicles, the release of the egg. But such a study should be carried out on strictly defined days in order to confirm ovulation.
Through how much conception occurs?
Fertilization takes place on the day of ovulation.. The egg cell is viable for about 10-14 hours from the moment it leaves the follicle. Male reproductive cells, spermatozoa, can remain viable inside the female body for much longer — up to 72 hours.
Therefore, intercourse on the eve of a follicle rupture is considered the most favorable for conception.
After fertilization of the egg, the preimplantation period of pregnancy begins. This period lasts 4-5 days. During this time, the egg moves along the fallopian tube to the uterus. The following factors contribute to the movement:
- Contraction of the smooth muscles of the uterine tube.
- The movement of the cilia of the epithelium tube.
- Relaxing the special sphincter that separates the fallopian tube and uterus.
Active movement contribute female hormones - estrogen and progesterone. During this period, division processes begin to occur inside the cell, and thus it is being prepared for implantation into the uterine wall.
This is an embryo of 16-32 cells. After getting into the uterus he is in a free state for 2 days, and then implantation is performed.
From what day is fertilization unlikely?
After 96 hours after the egg leaves the follicle, the probability of conception decreases to almost zero. If the woman’s menstrual cycle is regular, you can try to calculate the most favorable period for fertilization.
For this need to analyze your cycle over the last year and choose the longest and shortest. From the longest you need to take 11 days - this is the day when the probability of conception will be reduced to zero.
From the very short you need to subtract 18 - so we get the day of the cycle, on which the probability of becoming pregnant begins to increase. With a regular cycle of 28 days, the probability of fertilization is extremely low from 17 days.
When to do the test?
Pregnancy tests react to hCG level in the urine of a woman. This hormone is synthesized when pregnancy occurs. It is produced by the chorion - the cell structure in the embryo. The appearance and growth of hCG in the urine indicates a successful pregnancy.
The hormone begins to show up. in the blood of a woman from the first days after implantation. That is, from the moment of fertilization to the appearance of the “hormone of pregnancy” it should take at least 7 days.
After embryo implantation, the level of hCG begins to grow rapidly and up to 11 weeks of gestation, its amount in the mother’s body doubles every 48 hours.
Start doing pregnancy tests can be in 10-12 days after fertilization. In earlier periods, the level of the hormone will be very low and may not be determined by the usual rapid test.
Symptoms of pregnancy
First symptoms pregnancies do not begin to manifest immediately after conception, but after implantation of the embryo into the wall of the uterus.
And then the first symptoms of pregnancy appear:
- Implant bleeding. Occurs 6–9 days after fertilization. Manifested as spotting brown or bloody discharge. It is often confused with the onset of menstruation, although it occurs 7-9 days before it begins.
- Drawing pain in lower abdomen or feeling of heaviness. Occurs due to the contraction of the smooth muscles of the uterus when the embryo is injected. It is also similar to the onset of menstruation, but it appears at least a week before it starts.
- Swelling of the mammary glands. Another sign that is easily confused with the approaching menstruation. It differs not by simple engorgement, but by a strong increase in the sensitivity of the nipples. Perhaps their darkening and manifestation of the venous pattern on the mammary glands.
- Feeling tired A woman's body enters the hormonal adjustment mode and therefore consumes more energy than usual. This leads to increased fatigue, drowsiness.
- Change emotional background. Suddenly, emotionality or aggressiveness may increase. This symptom is also often the case with PMS, but it appears less clearly.
- Increase in basal temperature. One of the most significant signs is an increase in basal temperature above the average by 0.3 degrees, which indicates successful implantation. By increasing the blood supply to the pelvic organs, an increase in basal temperature occurs.
When planning a pregnancy, you can calculate the sex of the unborn child. Men’s seminal fluid contains two types of sperm: some carry the X chromosome, which is “responsible” for the appearance of the girl, and the other carries the Y chromosome, which causes the appearance of the boy.
Sperm with the X chromosome move more slowly. They are slightly larger in size and therefore more viable. Sperm carriers of the Y-chromosome have a longer tail and smaller size, and therefore are able to move to the egg faster.
But they have a smaller supply of nutrients, and therefore have a lower duration of activity than the carriers of the X chromosome.
To more accurately calculate the sex of the child, you need to follow these recommendations:
- If the parents are planning a boy, the probability of his conception is higher on the day of ovulation. Сперматозоиды с Y-хромосомой быстрее достигнут яйцеклетки и, соответственно, более вероятно зачатие мальчика.
- Если родители планируют девочку, то вероятность ее зачатия будет выше при половом акте за 1-2 дня до наступления овуляции. During this time, sperm cells with the X chromosome will reach the fallopian tube and will be able to fertilize the egg.
This method of planning is most explainable from the point of view of human physiology. But it can be effective. only under the condition of absolute reproductive health of both parents.
If, for example, the pH of the vagina is impaired in a womanThis can significantly slow down the movement of sperm. And we must remember that this method does not give an absolute guarantee that the child of the desired sex will be conceived.
Follicle and ovum
The female body is supplied with a certain number of children's “embryos” - follicles that are stored in the tissue of the ovary. This stock is being formed even before the birth of the girl, while she is in the womb, their number reaches 5-7 million.
With the beginning of independent life, follicles are consumed: they die for obscure medicine reasons or are transformed by the action of hormones into the egg. On average, in the tissue of the ovary, by the time of puberty, follicles remain in the order of 300-400 thousand, but only 400 of them get a chance for maturation and regeneration into an egg cell.
The maturation of the future egg begins with first day of the menstrual cyclewhen follicles begin to grow. Toward the middle of the cycle, the dominant follicle continues to grow and, when it reaches the required size, releases an egg cell. This process is called ovulation.
The mature egg begins to move to the fallopian tube, where the spermatozoon can already wait for it. Male reproductive cells - very viable and are in “combat” readiness up to 5-7 days after unprotected sexual contact.
But their potential and quantity is no longer as high as in a fresh portion of ejaculate. If the meeting of the egg and sperm takes place, then conception occurs. Fertilized ovum becomes a zygote and begins its first division. After several divisions, a blastocyst forms, which will develop into a child.
How long does ovulation last for women?
In contrast to the male reproductive cell, the female is not able to boast of longevity. On the contrary, her age is short: ovulation lasts no more than 48 hours. Usually from the moment of exit from the follicle to the cessation of functioning passes only 12-24 hours. So, if translated into days, then ovulation occurs only 1 day (in rare cases it happens 2 days).
Why know how many days or hours does ovulation last?
Some women want a child badly, while others strongly object to such a development of events. Information about how many days ovulation goes will give a hint about the "fruitfulness" or safety of unprotected sexual intercourse on certain days of the menstrual cycle. How the chances of getting pregnant change, depending on the distance of sexual contact from the fertile period:
Ovulation: what is it?
Ovulation (from the Latin ovum - egg) is one of the stages of the menstrual cycle, which is the process of rupture of a mature follicle with the release of a mature, capable of fertilizing an egg from the ovary into the abdominal cavity.
The process of ovulation is controlled by the hypothalamus by regulating (through gonadotropin-releasing hormone) the secretion of hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary: LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). In the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle before ovulation, the ovarian follicle grows under the influence of FSH. When the follicle reaches a certain size and functional activity, the ovulatory peak of LH is formed under the influence of the estrogen secreted by the follicle, which triggers the "maturation" of the egg. After maturation in the follicle a gap forms, through which the egg leaves the follicle - this is ovulation. Between ovulatory peak LH and ovulation takes about 36 - 48 hours. During the phase of the corpus luteum after ovulation, the egg usually travels through the fallopian tube in the direction of the uterus. If during ovulation fertilization of the egg occurred, then on days 6-12 the zygote enters the uterine cavity and the implantation process takes place. If conception does not occur, the egg cell dies in the fallopian tube for 12-24 hours.
When does ovulation occur?
Average ovulation occurs on the fourteenth day of the menstrual cycle (with a 28-day cycle). However, deviation from the mean is observed frequently and to a certain extent is the norm. The duration of the menstrual cycle itself is not a reliable source of information about the day of onset of ovulation. Although usually with a shorter cycle ovulation occurs earlier, and with a longer cycle - later.
The ovulation rhythm constant for each woman undergoes changes within 3 months after an abortion, within a year after giving birth, and also after 40 years when the body is preparing for a premenopausal period. Physiologically, ovulation ceases with the onset of pregnancy, and after the extinction of the menstrual function.
How is ovulation and conception?
The female body is endowed with two ovaries located on both sides of the uterus. The ovaries produce hormones, the most famous of which are estrogen and progesterone.
The ovaries contain eggs even at the stage of intrauterine development of the girl. In the two ovaries of a newborn there are hundreds of thousands of eggs. True, they are all inactive until the onset of puberty and the first ovulation, that is, up to about 12 years. During this time, a certain number of cells die, but 300,000 - 400,000 high-grade eggs remain. From the moment of the first ovulation to the onset of menopause, a woman will survive from 300 to 400 menstrual cycles, as a result of which the same number of oocytes that can become fertilized will mature. During the menstrual cycle in the ovaries one of the many eggs matures.
Under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) of the pituitary gland - the endocrine gland on the lower surface of the brain, the follicle (pouch) begins to grow with the egg cell selected for ovulation in this cycle. The follicle diameter at the beginning of the cycle does not exceed 1 mm, and after 2 weeks it reaches 20 mm. As the follicle grows, a bulge forms on the surface of the ovary, which increases to the size of the grape by the middle of the cycle. Inside the follicle contains fluid and a small nucleolus with a diameter of 0.1 mm.
The period of maturation of the egg up to its outcome from the ovary can last from 8 days to a month, although on average it lasts about 2 weeks. The main factor affecting the duration of this process is the time it takes the body to reach the limiting level of estrogen. The high content of estrogen stimulates a sharp increase in the content of luteostimulating hormone (LH), which causes the egg to break through the wall of the ovary within one to two days after a sharp rise in its level. In the middle of the cycle, approximately 12 days after the onset of menstruation, the pituitary gland releases a large amount of luteinizing hormone (LH), and approximately 36 hours after this, ovulation occurs.
Chromosomes located in the nucleus of cells are carriers of the genetic code. The purpose of fertilization is the fusion of two germ cells (gametes), originating from heterosexual individuals. All cells of the human body contain 46 chromosomes. Therefore, two gametes must form a new cell that also contains 46 chromosomes. With a simple addition, 92 chromosomes would result, but this would lead to a biological error, the consequence of which would be the cessation of the genus. Consequently, each of the partners must halve its number of chromosomes (to 23). In an egg cell, a reduction in the number of chromosomes occurs after the pituitary glands release the luteinizing hormone several hours before ovulation. For such a transformation, it takes 20 to 36 hours. Preparing itself to receive the sperm, the egg pushes to the periphery, in a small sac, called the first polar body, half of its chromosomes. The meeting with the sperm should occur at a specific time. If this happens earlier, the egg cell will not be ready to receive the spermatozoon, since it does not have time to divide its chromosomes, if - later, it risks losing the period of maximum readiness for fertilization.
The following 14 days after ovulationThe second part of the cycle takes place in preparation for the conception of the uterine mucosa. All preparation is in vain, if the conception has not happened, and its biological consequences will go along with the menstrual bleeding. But in one of the ovaries, a new egg is already being prepared for ovulation.
What happens after ovulation at conception?
The oocyte released from the follicle, having carried out the contraction of chromosomes, enters the fallopian tubes, which are connected with the ovary with their soft fringes. Fringes resemble an open flower at the end of the stem. And his live petals on the move captures the egg. The fusion of the egg and sperm usually occurs in the fallopian tube itself.
The fallopian tube is a cylindrical muscular organ, inside it is lined with mucous membrane covered with fibers and containing glands that produce a secret. This structure contributes to the movement of the egg and (if fertilization has occurred) the embryo in the uterus.
In order to fertilize the egg, the sperm must enter the body at about the same time as the egg leaves the follicle. It may seem that this is easy to achieve, but the ovum after ovulation only lasts for 24 hours or even less, and the sperm remains capable of fertilizing only for a few days. Thus, sexual intercourse should occur at your best time, if you want to get pregnant.
In this way, ovulation period - The most successful period for conceiving a child. In this regard, it is important to be able to determine when ovulation occurs. You can do it yourself at home, for example, by measuring the basal temperature. Special instruments have also been developed (for example, ClearPlan Easy Fertility Monitor), which, according to the content of hormones in urine analysis, are able to more accurately determine the moment of ovulation: tests for ovulation. More precise definitions can be made in a clinical setting, for example, by ultrasound monitoring of the growth and development of the follicle and the determination of the moment of its rupture.
When planning conception naturally, the procedure of in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination one of the most important points is the moment of ovulation.
Signs of ovulation as determined by the doctor:
How to accurately recognize ovulation?
There are methods that help one hundred percent determine the time of ovulation:
ultrasound observation (ultrasound) of the growth and development of the follicle and the determination of the moment of its rupture (ovulation), see photo. Ultrasound monitoring of follicle maturation is the most accurate method for determining ovulation. After the end of menstruation, approximately on day 7 of the cycle, the gynecologist performs an ultrasound using a vaginal probe. After that, the procedure should be carried out every 2-3 days to observe the preparation of the endometrium. Thus, it is possible to predict the date of onset of ovulation.
dynamic determination of luteinizing hormone (LH level) in urine. This method is simpler and can be applied at home using ovulation tests. Ovulation tests begin to be carried out 2 times a day, 5-6 days before the intended ovulation, strictly following the instructions.
Using Ovulation Tests
From what day do you need to start testing? This day depends on the duration of your cycle. The first day of the cycle is the day when menstruation began. Cycle length - the number of days elapsed from the first day of the last menstruation to the first day of the next.
If you have a constant cycle, then you need to start doing tests
17 days before the next menstruation, since the phase of the corpus luteum after ovulation lasts 12-16 days (on average, usually 14). For example, if the usual length of your cycle is 28 days, then testing should start from the 11th day, and if 35 - from the 18th day.
If the duration of your cycle is different - select the shortest cycle in the last 6 months and use its duration to calculate the day when to start testing. With very irregular cycles and the presence of delays for a month or more - using tests without additional control over ovulation and follicles is not reasonable because of their high cost (if you use tests every few days, you can skip ovulation and use these tests every day ).
With daily use or 2 times a day (in the morning and in the evening), these tests give good results, especially with ultrasound. With simultaneous monitoring of ultrasound, you can not waste tests, and wait until the follicle reaches about 18-20 mm, when it is able to ovulate. Then you can start doing tests every day.
Performing an ovulation test
You can do an ovulation test at any time of the day, but you should stick to the same test time as much as possible. You should refrain from urinating for at least 4 hours before the test. Avoid excessive fluid intake before testing, it can lead to a decrease in the amount of LH in the urine and reduce the reliability of the result.
Determination of ovulation using test strips: put the test strip in a jar of urine to the line indicated on the test for 5 seconds, place on a clean, dry surface, watch the result after 10-20 seconds.
Determining ovulation using a test instrument: Hold the tip of the absorbent down and place it under a stream of urine for 5 seconds. You can also collect urine in a clean, dry dish and place the absorbent in the urine for 20 seconds. Holding the tip of the absorbent down, remove the absorbent from the urine. Now you can put the cap back on. The result can be seen in 3 minutes.
Ovulation test results
The results of the determination of ovulation test strip: 1 strip means that the increase in LH levels have not happened yet, repeat the test after 24 hours. 2 strips - increase in the level of LH was recorded, the intensity of the strip next to the control indicates the amount of the hormone. Ovulation is possible when the intensity of the band as the control or brighter.
The results of determining the ovulation test instrument: Look in the result window and compare the result line to the left of the arrow on the body of the wand with the control line to the right. The line closest to the arrow on the body is the result line, which indicates the level of LH in the urine. Further to the right of the arrow on the body of the wand is the control line. The control line is used to compare with the result line. The control line always appears in the window if the test was carried out correctly.
If the result line is paler than the control line, it means that the LH surge has not yet occurred, and testing should be continued daily. If the result line is the same or darker than the control line, then the ear hormone release has occurred, and within 24-36 hours you will ovulate.
The most suitable for conception 2 days begin from the moment when you determined that the release of LH has already occurred. If sexual intercourse happens in the next 48 hours, your chance of becoming pregnant will be maximized. Once you have determined that the release has occurred, there is no longer need to continue testing.
Types of ovulation tests
The most common one-time test strips for determining ovulation, by analogy with pregnancy tests, their price is not high.
There are also devices for determining ovulation, which gradually replace expensive one-time tests, they also quite accurately determine the time of ovulation, but also are multifunctional and more economical, they do not need to be changed every time after use, and they are designed for many years of work.
Tests allow you to accurately determine ovulation, experts associate existing errors in the results of tests for ovulation only with their incorrect use.
Thus, by combining several methods to determine the moment of ovulation, you can track a long-awaited ovulation with an absolute guarantee. After all, it is precisely these days that the chance of successful conception is the highest: ovulation is possible conception.
Ovulation and pregnancy
In a woman, several days before and after the moment of ovulation represent the fertile phase, in which conception and pregnancy are most likely.
Different women have a noticeable difference in the timing of the onset of ovulation. And even for the same woman, the exact timing of ovulation varies in different months. Menstrual cycles may be longer or shorter than average, may be irregular. In rare cases, in women with a very short cycle, ovulation occurs approximately at the end of the menstrual period, but in most cases, ovulation occurs regularly at the same time.
From the time of conception in relation to the time of the onset of ovulation depends not only the actual conception of the child, but also his gender. Immediately at the time of ovulation, there is a high probability of conceiving a boy, while before and after ovulation a girl is more likely to succeed. Объясняется это тем, что сперматозоиды с Y хромосомой (мальчики) более быстрые, но живут меньше и менее устойчивы в кислой среде до овуляции, чем с XX набором (девочки). Если яйцеклетка уже идет навстречу свежи сперматозоидам, быстрее ее достигнут "мальчики". Если сперма долго "ждет" яйцеклетку, в ней остается большинство спермиков для зачатия девочки.
Вероятность зачатия и беременности вообще максимальна в день овуляции and is estimated at about 33%. A high probability of pregnancy is also observed on the day before ovulation - 31%, two days before it - 27%. Five days before ovulation, the probability of conception and pregnancy is 10% in four days - 14% and in three days - 16%. Six days before ovulation and the next day after it, the probability of conception and the occurrence of pregnancy during sexual intercourse is very small.
If we consider that the average "lifespan" of sperm cells is 2-3 days (in rare cases it reaches 5-7 days), and the female egg cell remains viable for about 12-24 hours, the maximum duration of the fertile period is 6-9 days and the fertile period corresponds to the phase of slow growth (6-7 days) and a rapid decline (1-2 days) before and after the day of ovulation, respectively. Ovulation divides the menstrual cycle into two phases: the maturation phase of the follicle, which with an average cycle duration is 10-16 days and the luteal phase (phase of the yellow body), which is stable, independent of the duration of the menstrual cycle and is 12-16 days. The phase of the corpus luteum is attributed to the period of absolute infertility, it begins 1-2 days after ovulation and ends with the onset of new menstruation. If, for one reason or another, ovulation does not occur, the endometrial layer in the uterus is thrown out during menstruation.
Lack of ovulation is one of the common causes of infertility.
Disruption of ovulation due to dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system and may be caused by inflammation of the genitals, dysfunction of the adrenal cortex or thyroid gland, systemic diseases, pituitary and hypothalamic tumors, intracranial pressure, stressful situations. Violation of ovulation may be hereditary (in the first place, it is the propensity for some diseases that interfere with ovulation). Anovulation - the absence of ovulation at the childbearing age - is manifested by a violation of the rhythm of menstruation by the type of oligomenorrhea (menstruation lasting 1-2 days), amenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Lack of ovulation is always the cause of infertility of a woman.
One of the common causes of infertility is the lack of ovulation, most often due to hormonal disbalance, which, in turn, can occur during stresses, brain injuries, abortions, etc. For the treatment of this condition, a complex of hormonal drugs that stimulate ovulation and cause superovulation is used, when several oocytes mature at the same time in the ovaries, which increases the chances of fertilization, and is widely used during the IVF procedure.
Another cause of infertility may be, for example, insufficiency of the luteal phase - NLF, when ovulation occurred, and the concentration of progesterone in the second phase of menstruation is insufficient for implantation of the embryo into the uterus. In this case, treatment is carried out aimed at stimulating the function of the corpus luteum of the ovary and increasing the content of progesterone in the blood. However, the correction of NLF is not always successful, since this condition is often associated with other gynecological diseases and requires careful examination.
If a woman has a broken follicle maturation process and, accordingly, ovulation, ovulation is stimulated. For this purpose, special drugs are prescribed - ovulation inducers. Prescribing medications will stimulate the development of one or more eggs in patients, which will then be ready for fertilization. Before the appointment of such a serious therapy, a full range of tests is carried out that allows you to determine the level of hormones in a woman. In addition to the use of ovulation stimulation, regular ultrasound diagnostics are also carried out. After the onset of ovulation, if you still can not get pregnant naturally, the patient is undergoing intrauterine insemination or IVF. There is a big difference in the method of stimulating ovulation for IVF and for natural conception: in the first case, several eggs are maturing, in the second - 1, maximum 2x.
Drugs to stimulate ovulation
The most commonly used drugs to stimulate ovulation are Klostilbegit and gonadotropic hormone drugs.
Preparations of gonadotropic hormones contain in their composition the hormones of the endocrine gland of the pituitary - gonadotropins. This follicle-stimulating hormone - FSH and luteinizing hormone - LH. These hormones regulate the maturation of the follicle and ovulation in a woman’s body and are secreted by the pituitary gland on certain days of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, when prescribing drugs containing these hormones, follicle maturation and ovulation occur.
Such drugs include Menopur (contains hormones FSH and LH) and Gonal-F (contains hormone FSH).
Drugs are available in injectable form, administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
How is ovulation stimulated?
Different schemes of ovulation stimulation are applied depending on the type of ovulation disorder and the duration of the disorders. When applying the scheme with Klostilbegit, the latter is appointed from 5 to 9 days of the menstrual cycle. The combination of this drug with gonadotropins is often used. In this case, Klostilbegit is administered from 3 to 7 days of the menstrual cycle with the addition of Menopur (Puregon) on certain days.
When carrying out the stimulation of ovulation, a very important point is to conduct ultrasound monitoring, that is, monitoring the maturation of the follicle on the ultrasound machine. This allows you to make adjustments to the treatment regimen, to avoid such a side effect of stimulation as the growth of several follicles. The frequency of ultrasound during the treatment program averages 2-3 times. During each inspection (monitoring), the number of growing follicles is measured, their diameter is measured, and the thickness of the uterine mucosa is determined.
When the leading follicle reaches a diameter of 18 millimeters, the doctor may prescribe the drug Pregnil, which completes the final process of maturation of the egg and causes ovulation (the egg leaves the follicle directly). Ovulation after the introduction of Pregnila occurs within 24-36 hours. Depending on the type of marital infertility, during the period of ovulation, either intrauterine insemination with sperm of the husband or donor is performed or the time of sexual intercourse is calculated.
Depending on the duration and cause of infertility, the age of the woman, the frequency of pregnancy for one attempt is 10 - 15%.
Conditions for stimulating ovulation:
1. Inspection of a married couple.
List of analyzes:
HIV (both spouses)
Syphilis (both spouses)
Hepatitis B (both spouses)
Hepatitis C (both spouses)
Smear on the degree of purity (female)
Bacteriological crops: Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Trichomonas, Candida, Gardnerella (both spouses)
Oncocytology smear (female)
Conclusion of the therapist about the possibility of pregnancy
Blood testing for antibodies to rubella, that is, the presence of immunity (protection) in women
2. Passable fallopian tubes.
Since fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube (“Physiology of conception”) passable fallopian tubes are an important condition for the occurrence of pregnancy. The assessment of patency of the fallopian tubes can be carried out by several methods:
- Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy
Since, for each method has its own indications, the choice of method is determined jointly by you and your doctor at the reception.
3. Lack of intrauterine pathology
Any abnormalities on the part of the uterus prevent the onset of pregnancy (“Intrauterine Pathology”). Therefore, if a woman has indications of trauma to the uterine mucosa (curettage of the uterus during abortions and bleeding, inflammation of the uterine mucosa - endometritis, IUD, and other factors), hysteroscopy is recommended to assess the condition of the uterine cavity (“Hysteroscopy”).
4. Satisfactory sperm quality
Satisfactory sperm quality - the absence of the male factor of infertility. If intrauterine insemination is not planned, a postcoital test (“Postcoital test”) is recommended prior to stimulating ovulation.
5. Lack of acute inflammatory process
The absence of an acute inflammatory process of any localization. Any inflammatory disease is a contraindication for many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine, because it carries the risk of deterioration of the patient.
Folk remedies to stimulate ovulation is better to use only after consulting a doctor.
For the formation of the embryo, the male and female sex cells — the spermatozoon and the egg cell — are necessary. Each of them contains half the set of chromosomes - carriers of genetic information.
In the egg, the last of the 23 chromosomes is represented by the sex X chromosome. Sperm composition is different. Half of them also carry the X chromosome, others - Y. It is they who decide what sex the child will have. If there is a combination of twentieth, then a girl will be born, XY - a boy.
In the ovaries of a woman, an egg matures every month under the influence of hormones. With an average cycle time of 28 days for days 12-16, ovulation occurs - the release of an egg from the follicle. Her life span is 24 hours. But sperm can remain viable for 1-2 days. Accordingly, fertilization can occur when sexual intercourse was on the day of ovulation, plus or minus 1-2 days.
The egg cell enters the abdominal cavity and with a current of mucus rushes into the fallopian tubes. They help her - their villi move and pull the egg inside. Under the action of the hormone progesterone, the appendages contract and push it further.
From the vagina sperm move to the uterus. The acidic environment reduces their mobility, many of them die. Helps the male genital cells contraction of the vaginal walls during and after intercourse. However, significantly fewer cells come to the fallopian tubes.
They suggest two variants of how the conception of twins occurs. This may be the maturation of two eggs, which is possible with a high level of follicle-stimulating hormone. Another option is the penetration of two spermatozoa into the egg cell at once. In this case, conception of twins can also occur.
How quickly conception occurs is determined by what day of the cycle sexual intercourse occurred, what are the characteristics of sperm. Within 7 hours after sexual intercourse, the spermatozoa are gradually activated - they get rid of the unnecessary membrane that will prevent merging with the female reproductive cell, they begin to move faster.
After meeting with the egg, they surround it, attach themselves to special receptors and begin to invade. To do this, using special enzymes dissolve the area of its shell. At the moment when one of the sperm penetrates, the flagellum falls off, and the egg cell is covered with a protective membrane that does not let other male sex cells pass.
Gradually, the nuclei of two cells merge. So a zygote is formed. She will continue to move into the body of the uterus and determine how many days conception takes place.
If ovulation occurs, and conception does not occur, the egg will reach the uterine cavity and, together with its inner membrane - the endometrium - will come out, which occurs in the body during menstrual bleeding.
If we consider the time from fertilization to the embryo stage to be conceived as a period of conception, we can approximately estimate how much conception occurs. The first division begins 24 hours after the merger of germ cells. The zygote shell is very dense, it does not allow the cells inside to grow to the size of normal ones. This is necessary so that the zygote calmly passes into the lumen of the fallopian tubes and is not stuck there. If the appendages are modified, there are adhesions and places of narrowing, the division process can be completed before the zygote enters the uterus. After conception, it will remain in the tubes and cause an ectopic pregnancy.
Crushing occurs within 2-4 days. As a result, blastomeres are formed. They do not grow, therefore after each division their size decreases. The first crushing is completed in 30 hours, 2 cells are formed, in 40 hours - already 4. By the end of 3 days, there are 12-16 blastomeres, and on the 4th - 32 cells.
Initially, all crushed cells are the same, but the processes are gradually activated, as a result of which they begin to differ from each other. The blastomeres in the center of the zygotes become darker, and along the periphery they become light. By the end of crushing, the zygote reaches the lumen of the fallopian tube and enters the uterus.
On day 5, as a result of cell movement, the embryo takes on the appearance of a vial filled with fluid. The cells still continue to divide. Up to 7 days, the embryo is freely located in the uterus. A part of its cells is assembled as a nodule at one of the poles, they will become an embryo. The rest form a thin wall around it - the future fetal membranes.
Gradually, the fetus approaches the wall of the uterus, its shell dissolves, and it is able to attach. The moment of penetration into the thickness of the endometrium is called implantation. It starts on the 7th day and lasts 40 hours. This coincides with the secretory phase - the day of the cycle, when the lining of the uterus is most prepared for implantation. More often it occurs in the upper part of the body along the front or back wall.
The germ secretes enzymes that melt part of the endometrium around. He gradually sinks inside. The resulting breakdown of the mucous membrane serves as a breeding ground for the future embryo. Gradually by 12-13 days from fertilization, the endometrial defect is filled with new cells, and the embryo is in the thickness of the tissue.
The vessels around it are destroyed, so the embryo feeds directly on substances from the mother’s blood. That is why it is very important at the very beginning of pregnancy to maintain a proper lifestyle and eat well. Any toxic substances during this period can damage the future embryo.
Some women at the time of implantation begins to pull the lower abdomen, and there is a spotting of blood, which they mistakenly take for menstruation. But they are short, ending within 1-2 days.
The fetus during this period is seriously changing. Its cells are split into three sheets, which will later give rise to various types of tissue. By the 13th day, the cells that form the outer layer are transformed into the chorion, a membrane that will feed the embryo and will gradually transform into the placenta.
Hormones of pregnancy
After ovulation and conception occurs, a yellow body forms at the follicle site. It assumes the function of maintaining pregnancy until the formation of the placenta, up to about 10 weeks.
The corpus luteum produces estrogen and progesterone. With a lack of hormones, the threat of abortion develops.
In addition, during this period, the pituitary gland is activated. He accelerates the release of chorionic gonadotropin, whose action is aimed at stimulating the corpus luteum. A woman feels his hormonal effects in the form of nausea, dizziness, engorgement of the mammary glands.
As the process of conceiving a child, the expectant mother can not feel. She does not feel what is happening in the body. That is why pregnancy should be planned in advance. This will minimize the impact of negative factors, and born children will have good health.