The problem that every woman faces is menopausal changes, accompanied by many unpleasant symptoms. One of the manifestations of the transition period is hypertension, which, if left untreated, can provoke the development of dangerous complications. Knowing the causes of pressure increase during menopause, you can prevent the development of the disease and minimize its effects on the body.
What is hypertension in menopause?
The female body is adapted to involution (simplifying the functions of systems and individual organs), which occurs upon reaching a certain age. The reduction mechanism is necessary to reduce the hormonal load in the absence of the ability to bear children. The phase of extinction of the functions of the reproductive system is called menopause and includes several stages.
The age of climacteric changes in the body varies greatly, the average is 50 years. The period of complete cessation of menstruation is called menopause, it is preceded by perimenopause, during which irreversible extinction of the reproductive function and decrease in the level of gestagens begin. At this stage, oligomenorrhea begins (delayed menstruation), changes in the consistency of discharge (become scarce, or, conversely, abundant).
Steroid female sex hormones are responsible not only for the cyclical nature of the menstrual cycle, but also for the ability to absorb vitamins, minerals, collagen production and the distribution of fatty tissue. The process of reducing the production of sex hormones estrogen and progesterone occurs gradually and is accompanied by changes in blood pressure.
The body does not have time to quickly adapt to changes in hormonal levels, so during the restructuring, which lasts several years (depending on the individual characteristics of the organism and heredity), the cardiovascular system experiences an increased load. Hypertension in menopause occurs as a response to insufficient hormone production and changes in all systems and organs that occur in connection with this.
Why does pressure increase during menopause
Hormones are endogenous highly active biological substances, and they play an important role as a link in all processes occurring in the body. Progesterone, as an antagonist of the modulator of the n-holinoreceptor, suppresses the activity of aldosterone biosynthesis (a hormone that retains sodium). By reducing the production of progesterone, the excretion of sodium in the urine is reduced, and the volume of intercellular fluid increases, which leads to persistent hypertension. In addition to the hormone deficiency, an increased pressure during menopause may be due to the following factors:
- disorders of the vascular and endocrine systems,
- overweight - hormonal failure can lead to metabolic disorders, increased insulin levels in the blood, resulting in weight increases and the load on the heart and blood vessels increases,
- uncontrolled use of hormonal drugs
- unstable emotional background, frequent stress,
- chronic infections
- genetic susceptibility to hypertension,
- metabolic bone diseases - lack of estrogen leads to the leaching of calcium from the body, which contributes to the rapid destruction of bone tissue and the development of osteoporosis, which results in difficulty in passing blood through the vessels, the formation of blood clots.
Hypertension during hormonal failure, preceding the new life stage (postmenopause), can manifest itself even in those women who have never before encountered this problem. Many patients, for the first time confronted with high blood pressure only during menopause, write off signs of hypertension to stress, sleepless night or caffeine, which delay the adoption of operational measures.
A timely visit for medical help will help prevent further deterioration of health, so it is important to know the symptoms of hypertension. An increase in pressure during menopause is characterized by the following symptoms:
- the appearance of a pulsating headache in the temples,
- increased migraine attacks,
- sudden dizziness, accompanied by nausea,
- increased perspiration, not associated with a response to changes in ambient temperature,
- alternating sensations of fever and chill,
- tides (a condition characterized by a sense of lack of air, nausea, short-term fever),
- psycho-emotional imbalance - a tendency to hyperbolic emotions, baseless experiences, protracted depressions, unreasonable disorders,
- sleep disturbance - manifested as insomnia at night and drowsiness in the daytime,
- increased urination - occurs more often at night,
- fatigue, weakness,
- dryness of the oral mucosa,
- hyperemia - redness of the skin of the face and neck,
- puffiness - occurs predominantly after sleep, is localized in the upper part of the body.
What is dangerous unstable pressure
The absence of symptoms of hypertension is a very rare phenomenon, but women blame pressure jumps during menopause for premenopausal syndrome and do not take targeted measures to stabilize pressure. The lack of adequate treatment in the early stages of hypertension can lead to a number of complications, the most dangerous of which are:
- accelerated wear of vessels and heart muscle,
- increased risk of stroke,
- an increase in heart due to constant high loads,
- development of aneurysms in the vessels, which leads to an increase in wall thickness, blockage, loss of tone and rupture,
- renal failure
- atherosclerosis - reduction of the lumen between the walls of blood vessels due to the formation of cholesterol plaques,
- blurred vision (up to complete blindness) due to increased blood pressure on the fundus,
- appearance of risk of hemorrhage in the brain.
How to deal with pressure surges
Treatment of hypertension during climacteric changes requires a special approach due to the increased sensitivity of the body during this period. Normalization of pressure by taking medication is permissible only after the diagnostic examination of the patient to exclude the presence of other pathologies with similar symptoms. The effectiveness of treatment depends not only on the correctly selected drugs, but also on the implementation of all measures within the framework of complex therapy prescribed by a doctor:
- controlled medication,
- performance of a therapeutic exercise complex,
- the use of homeopathic remedies to enhance and maintain the results of therapy,
- implementation of preventive measures to prevent the recurrence of the disease,
- self-monitoring of pressure indicators and changes in well-being.
The decision on the need to use pharmacological drugs for the treatment of hypertension during menopause should be made by the doctor, as well as prescribe the dosage and frequency of administration. To normalize the pressure and maintain the functioning of the cardiovascular system, it is effective to use the following groups of drugs:
- hormonal drugs - Proginova, Klimonorm, Divina,
- homeopathic remedies containing phytoestrogens - Remens, Klimaktoplan, Klimadinon,
- psycholeptics - motherwort, valerian,
- angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors - Captopril, Lisinopril,
- diuretics (together with calcium-containing drugs) - Furosemide, Indapamide, Calcemin, Calcium phosphate,
- beta-blockers for heart function - Bisoporol, Concor.
Safe and convenient to use phytoestrogen is the drug Klimonorm. Packaging contains two types of tablets that should be taken on certain days of the week. In addition to the normalization of pressure, the remedy helps to reduce the severity of other unpleasant symptoms during menopause:
- name: Klimonorm,
- Description: Estradiol-based anti-climacteric drug compensates for the lack of estrogen in menopause, prevents changes caused by hormone deficiency, reduces cholesterol and restores bone mass, is indicated for menopausal syndrome, as a prophylactic agent for hypertension and osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus is a contraindication, diabetes mellitus is a contraindication. myocardial infarction, can provoke vaginal bleeding, pigmentation,
- dosage: tablets are taken daily at the same time, the first 9 days should be taken yellow pills, the next 12 days - brown (additionally contain levonorgestrel), after the end of the package, you need to take a break for 7 days,
- Benefits: effectively eliminates the symptoms of menopause, normalizes pressure during menopausal hypertension,
- disadvantages: the presence of pronounced side effects.
A rapid hypotensive effect is achieved after taking Captopril tablets. Before taking this drug, you should consult with your doctor due to the presence of a list of contraindications. Treatment with Captopril in menopause should be carried out under constant medical supervision:
- Name: Captopril,
- Description: Antihypertensive tablets containing an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that inhibits the production of an oligopeptide hormone in the liver that causes vasoconstriction, the drug is indicated for hypertension and heart failure, helps to normalize and maintain an optimal pressure level during menopause, and is contraindicated for kidney or liver failure, for hypotension and aortic stenosis, can cause nausea, proteinuria, bronchospasm,
- dosage: taking the medication during menopause should begin with a minimum dose (0.5 tablets 2 times a day), after which the dosage gradually increases, with the maximum daily dose of Captopril should not exceed 150 mg, tablets should be taken one hour before meals,
- advantages: quick action,
- disadvantages: there are contraindications.
One way to reduce pressure in hypertension during menopause is to remove excess fluid from the body. Taking diuretics helps eliminate puffiness and reduce the load on the heart. Furosemide is a loop diuretic. Preparations of this pharmacological group have a stimulating effect on the filtration organs in order to accelerate the removal of the salts of magnesium, potassium and sodium:
- Name: Furosemide,
- Description: A potent diuretic with secondary effects (in addition to excretion of salts, the vascular smooth muscle response to narrowing decreases), the drug is indicated for a tendency to edema, hypertension (including menopause), is not indicated for patients with acute renal or hepatic failure, atypical pathology of the urinary tract, lack of potassium, sodium, of the side effects are tachycardia, arrhythmia, exacerbation of pancreatitis, necrotizing angiitis,
- dosage: the dosage regimen must be set individually by the attending physician, the therapeutic range of daily doses is from 0.5 to 3 tablets, during treatment of hypertension during menopause, constant monitoring of changes in blood pressure indicators is required,
- advantages: high efficiency, the effect occurs 1-2 hours after ingestion,
- disadvantages: significant side effects.
Adjusting the daily diet can get rid of many health problems, including hypertension. In addition, during menopause, the metabolism slows down, which leads to the appearance of excess weight, which is hard to get rid of. Compliance with the following recommendations in the diet will help to normalize the metabolism and eliminate fluid retention in the body:
- harmful foods such as triglycerides (fats - butter, lard, animal fats) should be excluded from the diet,
- It is necessary to reduce the total caloric content of meals by replacing high-carbohydrate and fat-containing products with calcium, protein,
- eat more fresh vegetables, fruits,
- maintain water-salt balance, using more pure water,
- give up alcoholic beverages,
- minimize the use of confectionery and bakery products,
- The daily ration should contain fermented milk products with low fat content (cottage cheese, kefir, natural yoghurt),
- reduce the consumption of salt, spicy seasonings, sauces.
To improve the general condition of women during menopause will help traditional medicine with hypotensive action. Self-medication for hypertension is permissible only after prior consultation with a doctor. In severe cases, homeopathic medicines can supplement the prescribed therapeutic treatment, but not replace it. Before using drugs prepared according to the recipes of homeopathic medicine, you should make sure that there is no allergic reaction to the components of the drug.
To normalize high blood pressure during menopause, it is effective to take tinctures and decoctions on the basis of hawthorn, and to stabilize the emotional balance on the basis of medicinal herbs that have a sedative effect:
- Herbal tea with hawthorn. Mix in equal proportions of motherwort, hawthorn, crushed leaves of blackberry and dried marsh. Pour the mixture with purified water and bring to a boil. In 20 minutes. remove from heat, cool. Ready broth to take half a glass three times a day before meals.
- Soothing tea from the leaves of lemon balm. Both fresh and dried leaves are suitable for the preparation of this agent. One tablespoon of leaves is necessary to pour a glass of boiling water, insist 30 minutes, after which 0.5 tsp can be added to the finished tea. honey and drink for two doses.
- Decoction with chamomile. Pharmaceutical chamomile flowers, hawthorn fruits or flowers, the leaves of the hermit poured 0.5 liters of boiling water, cook for 10-15 minutes. Cool the broth and take 150 mg three times a day.
To minimize the negative impact of hormonal adjustment on the body during menopause, preventive measures should be started as early as possible. If a healthy lifestyle was the norm for a woman for many years, then during the transition to a new life stage, the risk of negative reactions will be minimal. To prevent the occurrence of hypertension in menopause and the development of menopausal syndrome, the following rules should be followed:
- timely start hormone replacement therapy,
- to refuse from bad habits,
- observe the principles of proper balanced nutrition,
- follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle,
- periodically take a course of massage to relax spastic muscles, improve blood circulation,
- take sedatives to normalize emotional background,
- to use herbal products made according to proven recipes of traditional medicine,
- regularly undergo preventive medical examinations, adhere to the recommendations of doctors.
Causes of pressure instability during menopause
Women who, before the arrival of menopause, had no problems with pressure, may begin to come up with various excuses that it began to rise. Typically, these reasons are not related to the menopause itself. The woman is inclined to think that she is simply tired, nervous, drank a lot of coffee, did not sleep much.
Attention! According to statistics, high blood pressure bothers almost half of all women who are in the age of menopause. Because of this, many women have such terrible diseases as heart attacks, strokes, atherosclerosis.
And yet, why pressure during menopause is not very stable?
- Violation of water-salt metabolism in the body of a woman. The fluid no longer circulates normally in the body, its part is retained in the tissues. Because of this, deposits of sodium, that is, salt, are formed in the tissues, and the high content of salt in the blood accelerates the work of the heart, and its pressure rises.
- During menopause emotional condition women are unstable: she is subject to stress more than usual. It doesn’t cost anything to make them nervous and withdraw themselves, and many ladies are depressed almost constantly.
- For normal work during the day, the body must fully relax at night, and a woman does not always succeed in this, because at night she is tormented by sweating, hot flashes, a sense of fear and anxiety. Because of this, the pressure can either rise sharply or fall sharply.
- Lack of sex hormones leads to the fact that the tissues of the body become less plastic and elastic, are severely damaged. Such a fate does not pass and vessels. At the same time, the blood becomes more dense, it is difficult for her to move through the vessels. In addition, some people increase cholesterol with age, which can lead to the deposition of plaques inside the vessels. То есть, кровь начинает циркулировать намного хуже, отсюда и берется повышенное давление.
Есть ряд симптомов, которые помогают распознать гипертонию. To know them is very important, since the disease is dangerous, with it it is necessary to take appropriate measures. Also, someone from your family may be in a similar situation, and, knowing the symptoms, you can help him with this condition, such as hypertension.
- Pain in the chest and heart.
- Darkening of the eyes or any other visual impairment.
- Blood from the nose.
- Difficult breathing, shortness of breath.
- Swelling of the arms and legs (in most cases, this symptom is characteristic of women).
- Increased nervous tension, irritability.
How to treat hypertension with menopause?
Any sensible person understands that if the body lacks hormones, then they need to be replenished. Hormones are sold as pills, however, their list of side effects is too high, one of which is pressure surges. Therefore, taking hormones is advisable only in those cases if women have menopaque blood pressure during menopause is enviable stability. In the case of high blood pressure, there can be no treatment with hormones.
In principle, an attack of high pressure in women of climacteric age is stopped by the same means as in the most classic cases of high pressure.
However, when choosing a means, consultation with the attending physician is obligatory, as it will help you choose those medicines that are more appropriate to use during menopause and which will be of great benefit to the body. A medical consultation will also be useful for the reason that many drugs for high blood pressure also have serious side effects: some of them have allergic reactions, so it is important not to harm.
Hypertension can be treated with a single drug, and may involve taking several types of drugs at the same time.
First of all, a woman will have to revise her diet if she really wants to get rid of high blood pressure. The condition of a woman during menopause directly depends on what she eats. Your daily diet should be supplied with fresh vegetables and fruits, try to eliminate or minimize fatty and salty foods, as it provokes an increase in pressure. Do not get carried away and sweets. But alcoholic drinks and cigarettes will have to be forgotten once and for all, as climax and bad habits get along very badly with each other.
If you follow these simple rules, then the state of a woman in the period of menopause will have improved significantly.
However, there are also more severe cases when it is impossible to do without drugs, such as:
- Medication Based phytoestrogen (analogues of the hormone estrogen) contained in a number of medicinal plants. A significant advantage of this treatment is that it does not harm the female body in any way and has practically no contraindications. As for the drugs of this kind, prescribed for menopause, these are medications such as Clemonorm, Proginova etc.
- However, there are a number of women who are prohibited from taking analogues of sex hormones. Treatment is recommended for them with homeopathic remediesat. These include drugs such as Remens, Klimadinon and some others, which can also be purchased at pharmacies. In addition, these drugs are able to control the tides, sweating, emotional state of a woman, improve the condition of blood vessels and create prevention of blood clots.
- Often prescribed sedatives. They not only help calm down and bring your emotional state in order, but also reduce pain and spasms.
Attention! If, in addition to high pressure, there is darkening in the eyes, severe headache, incoordination of movements and orientation in space, then you need to call an ambulance, as this may indicate a stroke, heart attack or hypertensive crisis.
Traditional methods of treatment of high pressure in menopause
Traditional therapy for menopause is a good way to improve the general condition of a woman, however, before taking traditional medicine, you also need to consult a doctor, since high blood pressure is a very serious disease.
Good for such problems helps hawthorn, which can be used in several forms:
- Hawthorn tincture, sold in a pharmacy in finished form: you need to use it for 40 drops, dissolved in half a glass of water. The course of treatment should be clarified by the doctor, in case of problems with pressure, it is used three times a day before meals.
- If dried fruits or flowers of hawthorn are on hand, they need to be filled with boiling water, left for half an hour and drunk a third of a glass every day before eating.
- A decoction of hawthorn, chamomile and motherwort also helps to solve problems with heart and pressure. This tool is taken on one third of a glass a day before meals.
Causes of pressure
Why does arterial hypertension develop during menopause?
- nervous system stress,
- unhealthy diet, abundant in table salt,
- hypodynamia, and as a result - excess weight until obesity,
- circulatory disorders (etiology may be different)
- excessive activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Increased pressure on such days is dangerous for the development of hypertensive crisis and stroke. It is important to quickly undergo a diagnosis by a doctor and adhere to the treatment regimen.
Symptoms that a woman experiences during this period: increased blood pressure, headache, sweating, feeling hot, rapid heartbeat, loss of strength, drowsiness, irritability, distraction, depression, fear.
Principles of treatment
Treatment of pressure in menopause is not particularly different from conventional therapy, although it has a number of individual recommendations!
Since the main reason for the persistent increase in blood pressure is metabolic disorders, the main therapy for hypertension is aimed at eliminating excess body weight. Also, the maximum possible normalization of all metabolic processes.
It is important to eliminate pressure surges, preventing the occurrence of hypertensive crisis.
Table: Clinical guidelines for menopausal women
- fractional (ideally 5-fold) power,
- fats - fish and vegetable, animals to minimize,
- the protein is predominantly milk, to a lesser extent - meat,
- desirable (for diabetics type II - mandatory) rejection of products with high GI,
- obligatory presence of fiber (minimum 40 g), coming with fruits, vegetables, bran products,
- salt - no more than a teaspoon per day in any dishes and drinks,
- the volume of fluid intake is 30 ml per kilogram of its own weight (calculated by WHO),
- maximum weekly alcohol consumption - 80 g
Carbohydrate metabolism is corrected predominantly by Metformin, less often (with impaired glucose tolerance) - Acarbose.
Optimization of lipid metabolism is achieved by prescribing statins. The key positive point of all of these funds is their ability to reduce the likelihood of the development of various complications of heart and vascular diseases.
Calcium antagonists known for their beneficial effects can also be given to perimenopausal women.
If an older patient manages to reduce body weight by 10% per year, then we can talk about a real reduction in the risk to her health.
Climax and pressure concepts are not always interrelated. In many women, blood pressure rises from other causes unrelated to the perimenopause period.
Elimination of risk factors effectively affects the normalization of blood pressure
Of course, no drug therapy will give such a positive effect without aerobic exercise. A sufficiently long training session in a certain rhythm with sufficient muscular load is necessary.
- walking and running
- skiing, ice skating, cycling,
- tennis, basketball,
- fitness, dancing.
The choice of classes remains for the patient. The positive effect is unattainable without the right emotional state. It is necessary that the woman enjoyed the chosen occupation. After all, you have to withstand a fairly intense mode. At least three hour workouts weekly.
Blood pressure during menopause in women can be normalized gradually!
During this period, it is not recommended to sharply bring down its performance.
Lifestyle change is an important component in the treatment of hypertension, especially against the background of low insulin sensitivity (the threat of diabetes). A diet that is strictly balanced in calories, supplemented by physical exertion, releases reserves of the respiratory and blood supply systems and significantly improves cardiac activity.
The author of the article is Svetlana Ivanov Ivanova, general practitioner